Fear of predators may be a bigger killer than the predators themselves

Aug 19, 2008

(PhysOrg.com) -- When biologists consider the effects that predators have on their prey, they shouldn’t just count the number of individuals consumed. According to a University of Rhode Island ecologist, they must also examine the effects of fear.

URI Assistant Professor Evan Preisser said that fear of being eaten can reduce population densities as much or even more than the actual quantities of individuals killed by predators.

“Prey are far from helpless victims of predators,” said Preisser. “They employ a wide array of defensive strategies to protect themselves. But the costs of these strategies may have a larger impact on their population than the direct effect of being eaten.”

To avoid being consumed by a predator, many prey species will spend more time hiding and less time eating. This can lead to a lower body mass, reduced reproduction rates, fewer offspring, and a lower rate of survival.

Preisser notes that fire ants, for example, are highly successful at finding resources, but they are “totally freaked out” by a species of parasitoid fly that lays its eggs inside the ants, which ultimately kills them.

“If one of these flies comes along, all the ants will hide and remain hidden for a really long time,” he said. “Research by Donald Feener at the University of Utah has shown that the flies actually have a very low success rate at killing the ants because the ants are so good at hiding. They spend so much time in hiding, however, that the whole ant population becomes weaker.”

Preisser also points to research conducted by Oswald Schmitz at Yale University documenting that grasshoppers can be so afraid of wolf spiders that they will starve to death rather than come out of hiding and feed in the presence of the spider.

In a research paper published in the journal PLoS ONE in June, Preisser and Daniel Bolnick of the University of Texas-Austin found that the presence of a predator reduces prey feeding rates and overall activity rates by 57 percent and 45 percent, respectively, among species living in aquatic ecosystems and by 45 percent and 34 percent among those in terrestrial ecosystems.

“Just the simple presence of a predator can increase the mortality of prey species by as much as five percent,” Preisser said.

The URI ecologist is the guest editor of an upcoming special, three-article feature on “nonconsumptive predator effects on prey dynamics” in the September issue of Ecology, the journal of the Ecological Society of America. The articles were written as a result of a working group convened by the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis to examine the topic, which Preisser and Bolnick co-chaired.

In his introduction to the feature, Preisser wrote that fear-based, nonconsumptive effectives of predation “may extend a predator’s reach far beyond its grasp.”

Provided by University of Rhode Island

Explore further: Lemurs match scent of a friend to sound of her voice

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Heartbleed could harm a variety of systems

33 minutes ago

It now appears that the "Heartbleed" security problem affects not just websites, but also the networking equipment that connects homes and businesses to the Internet.

Three things to do to protect from Heartbleed

33 minutes ago

The "Heartbleed" bug has caused anxiety for people and businesses. Now, it appears that the computer bug is affecting not just websites, but also networking equipment including routers, switches and firewalls.

Authors Guild asks US court to rule against Google

35 minutes ago

The Authors Guild says that Google Inc. is stealing business from retailers and has asked a New York federal appeals court to find that the Internet giant is violating copyright laws with its massive book digitization project.

IMF, World Bank push for price on carbon

38 minutes ago

The IMF and World Bank on Friday urged finance ministers to impose a price on carbon, warning that time was running out for the planet to avoid worst-case climate change.

Recommended for you

Building better soybeans for a hot, dry, hungry world

3 minutes ago

(Phys.org) —A new study shows that soybean plants can be redesigned to increase crop yields while requiring less water and helping to offset greenhouse gas warming. The study is the first to demonstrate ...

Gene removal could have implications beyond plant science

27 minutes ago

(Phys.org) —For thousands of years humans have been tinkering with plant genetics, even when they didn't realize that is what they were doing, in an effort to make stronger, healthier crops that endured climates better, ...

Lemurs match scent of a friend to sound of her voice

12 hours ago

Humans aren't alone in their ability to match a voice to a face—animals such as dogs, horses, crows and monkeys are able to recognize familiar individuals this way too, a growing body of research shows.

User comments : 0

More news stories

Gene removal could have implications beyond plant science

(Phys.org) —For thousands of years humans have been tinkering with plant genetics, even when they didn't realize that is what they were doing, in an effort to make stronger, healthier crops that endured climates better, ...

Making 'bucky-balls' in spin-out's sights

(Phys.org) —A new Oxford spin-out firm is targeting the difficult challenge of manufacturing fullerenes, known as 'bucky-balls' because of their spherical shape, a type of carbon nanomaterial which, like ...