Life's 6-legged survivors -- evolutionary study shows beetles are in it for the long run

Dec 20, 2007

Most modern-day groups of beetles have been around since the time of the dinosaurs and have been diversifying ever since, says new research out in Science today.

There are approximately 350,000 species of beetles on Earth, and probably millions more yet to be discovered, accounting for about 25% of all known life forms on the planet. The reason for this large number of beetle species has been debated by scientists for many years, but never resolved.

Now a team of scientists has shown that large numbers of modern-day beetle lineages evolved very soon after the first beetles originated, and have persisted ever since. Many modern-day lineages first appeared during the Jurassic period, when the major groups of dinosaurs appeared too.

Lead scientist on the study, Professor Alfried Vogler from Imperial College London’s Department of Life Sciences and the Natural History Museum’s Department of Entomology, explains: “The large number of beetle species existing today could very well be a direct result of this early evolution and the fact that there has been a very high rate of survival and continuous diversification of many lineages since then.”

The team behind today’s new study – the most extensive of its kind to date - used DNA sequencing and fossil records to compile a comprehensive evolutionary ‘family tree’ for beetles. By comparing DNA sequences from 1,880 beetle species, the scientists were able to group beetle species that are descended from a common ancestor, enabling them to build an evolutionary tree for all the species included. Fossils of known ages were then used to date key moments of evolution and diversification on the tree.

Prior to this study the survival success of beetles had been attributed to herbivory - feeding on plants - and the rise of flowering plants in the Cretaceous era, which started some 140 million years ago. However, mapping species numbers onto the evolutionary tree shows that many modern beetle lineages significantly pre-date the appearance of the first flowering plants.

Beetles have displayed an exceptional ability to seize new ecological opportunities and develop a great range of life styles and feeding types, explains Professor Vogler. “Unlike the dinosaurs which dwindled to extinction, beetles survived because of their ecological diversity and adaptability,” he says.

The scientific team says that understanding the evolution of beetles is an important part of understanding the natural world: “With beetles forming such a large proportion of all known species, learning about their relationships and evolution gives us important new insights into the origin of biodiversity and how beetles have triumphed over the course of nearly 300 million years,” said Professor Vogler.

Source: Imperial College London

Explore further: Fish play a role in seed dispersal over large distances

Related Stories

Some mushrooms glow, and here's why

Mar 19, 2015

Did you know that there are mushrooms that actually glow? Aristotle was aware of this intriguing fact more than 2,000 years ago. He also was the first person to ask a simple question in print: Why? Now, researchers ...

Blind beetles show extraordinary signs of sight

Jan 28, 2015

University of Adelaide researchers have made a surprising discovery in the aquifers beneath the Western Australian desert, which challenges the traditional Darwinian view of evolution.

Conserving for nature's sake or our own?

Feb 20, 2015

The value of nature in conservation may seem simple, straightforward and fundamental. Yet a persistent question arises: Should we conserve nature only for humans or also for its own sake as well?

Recommended for you

Fish play a role in seed dispersal over large distances

7 minutes ago

Fish can play a role in seed dispersal over large distances. Heavy seeds in particular pass undamaged through the mouths and intestines of fish and may end up being dispersed for miles, both in an upstream ...

User comments : 1

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

MikeyK
not rated yet Dec 20, 2007
The suuccess of the Coleopterans should not be too much of a surprise, they are the perfect design for protection and dispersion. The basic design also allows them to diversify as they are less likely to be eaten when 'trying out' new niches.
God sure loves those tryers!

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.