New research suggests key to happiness is gratitude -- and men may be locked out

Mar 13, 2009

With Mother's Day, Father's Day and high school and college graduations upcoming, there will be plenty of gift-giving and well wishes. When those start pouring in, let yourself be grateful—it's the best way to achieve happiness according to several new studies conducted by Todd Kashdan, associate professor of psychology at George Mason University.

Gratitude, the emotion of and joy in response to receiving a gift, is one of the essential ingredients for living a good life, Kashdan says. Kashdan's most recent paper, which was published online this week at the , reveals that when it comes to achieving well-being, gender plays a role. He found that are much less likely to feel and express than women.

"Previous studies on gratitude have suggested that there might be a difference in gender, and so we wanted to explore this further—and find out why. Even if it is a small effect, it could make a huge difference in the long run," says Kashdan.

In one study, Kashdan interviewed college-aged students and , asking them to describe and evaluate a recent episode in which they received a gift. He found that women compared with men reported feeling less burden and obligation and greater levels of gratitude when presented with gifts. In addition, older men reported greater when the gift giver was another man.

"The way that we get socialized as children affects what we do with our emotions as adults," says Kashdan. "Because men are generally taught to control and conceal their softer emotions, this may be limiting their well-being."

As director of the Laboratory for the Study of , Character Strengths, and Related Phenomena at Mason, Kashdan is interested in the assessment and cultivation of well-being, curiosity, gratitude and meaning and purpose in life. He has been active in the positive psychology movement since 2000, when he taught one of the first college courses on the science of .

Kashdan says that if he had to name three elements that are essential for creating happiness and meaning in life it would be meaningful relationships, gratitude, and living in the present moment with an attitude of openness and curiosity. His book "Curious?," which outlines ways people can enhance and maintain the various shades of well-being, is scheduled for release in April 2009 with HarperCollins.

Source: George Mason University

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4 / 5 (3) Mar 13, 2009
Nothing new here. Seligman and Sonja Lyubomirsky have noted this for years. Many things can boost happiness for a short time. The real issue is how to create lasting or permanent happiness (i.e., a higher happiness set point. I think that the gender difference result may not be what it seems also. Obviously, if the gender advantage noted in this study was real and lasting then the incidence of depression would not be twice as high in women as it is in men.
3.7 / 5 (3) Mar 13, 2009
Obviously, if the gender advantage noted in this study was real and lasting then the incidence of depression would not be twice as high in women as it is in men.

No, that is not at all obvious.

Many things contribute to being happy. There is no reason to believe that gratefulness is the largest factor.

It is also wrong to assume that depression is a lack of happiness... Depression is often related to a chemical imbalance, and the person will be sad regardless of being exposed to experiences that make most people happy.
3 / 5 (2) Mar 13, 2009
There is no reason to believe that gratefulness is the largest factor.

Except for maybe a study on the matter. ;)
3 / 5 (2) Mar 15, 2009
another total waste of taxpayer money. this guy should get a real job.

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