Scientists explore how females shut off their second X chromosome

Researchers at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg and Institut Curie in Paris have shown that the protein SPEN plays a crucial role in the process of X-chromosome inactivation, whereby female mammalian ...

Breakthrough in sex-chromosome regulation

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have uncovered a chromosome-wide mechanism that keeps the gene expression of sex chromosomes in balance in our cells. The findings shed light on molecular reasons for early miscarriage ...

Sex and diet affect protein machineries

Scientists from EMBL Heidelberg have discovered that the collection of proteins in an animal cell—called the proteome—is substantially affected by both the animal's sex and its diet. Understanding these individual proteomes ...

Molecular puzzle reveals unknown stages of fetal development

By applying gene analysis to individual cells from early mouse embryos, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have discovered previously unknown cellular stages of fetal development from fertilised egg to living ...

What causes rats without a Y chromosome to become male?

A look at the brains of an endangered spiny rat off the coast of Japan by University of Missouri (MU) Bond Life Sciences Center scientist Cheryl Rosenfeld could illuminate the subtle genetic influences that stimulate a mammal's ...

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X chromosome

The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in many animal species, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome). It is a part of the XY sex-determination system and X0 sex-determination system. The X chromosome was named for its unique properties by early researchers, and this resulted in its counterpart being named the Y chromosome for the next letter in the alphabet when it was discovered later.

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