Related topics: geologists

Could humans live in lava tubes on the moon?

In 2017, Purdue University researchers helped discover a lava tube on the moon that could protect astronauts from hazardous conditions on the surface. Now, 3-D image reconstructions of lava tubes on Earth could help assess ...

Super volcanic eruptions interrupt ozone recovery

Since the Antarctic ozone hole was detected in 1985, depletion of the ozone layer—the "big umbrella" that protects all life on Earth—has raised considerable concern. The efforts of international communities led to the ...

Volcano Raikoke spits ash over Bering Sea

An unexpected and powerful eruption started at Raikoke volcano in the Kuril Islands on 21 June 2019. This image, which was captured on 22 June, shows the brown ash plumes rising high above the dense clouds—drifting eastwards ...

Volcanic eruption witnessed by prehistoric humans

A volcanic eruption believed to be eye-witnessed by humans in prehistoric times happened 245,000 years later than originally expected, according to new research involving Curtin University researchers.

Volcano on Bali erupts, briefly disrupting flights (Update)

Bali's airport has returned to normal operations after some flights were canceled on Friday night following an eruption of the Mount Agung volcano that spread ash over the south of the Indonesian island.

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Volcano

A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot, molten rock, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface. Volcanic activity involving the extrusion of rock tends to form mountains or features like mountains over a period of time. The word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano island off Sicily. In turn, it was named after Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.

Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust (called "non-hotspot intraplate volcanism"), such as in the African Rift Valley, the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and the Rio Grande Rift in North America and the European Rhine Graben with its Eifel volcanoes.

Volcanoes can be caused by mantle plumes. These so-called hotspots, for example at Hawaii, can occur far from plate boundaries. Hotspot volcanoes are also found elsewhere in the solar system, especially on rocky planets and moons.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA