Catching fast changes in excited molecules

It's hard to see certain molecules react. The reaction is just that fast. Until now. A team of scientists devised a way to reveal time- and energy-resolved information on "dark" states of molecules—ones that are normally ...

What ionized the universe?

The sparsely distributed hot gas that exists in the space between galaxies, the intergalactic medium, is ionized. The question is, how? Astronomers know that once the early universe expanded and cooled enough, hydrogen (its ...

Active galaxies point to new physics of cosmic expansion

Investigating the history of our cosmos with a large sample of distant 'active' galaxies observed by ESA's XMM-Newton, a team of astronomers found there might be more to the early expansion of the universe than predicted ...

Cool textiles to beat the heat

Air-conditioned buildings bring welcome relief to people coming in from the heat. But creating that comfort comes with a cost to our wallets and the environment in the form of increased energy bills and greenhouse gas emissions. ...

Saturn's radiation belts: A stranger to the solar wind

The radiation belts of Earth and Saturn differ more strongly than previously assumed. In these belts, very energetic particles, such as electrons and protons, move around the planet at high velocities - captured by its magnetic ...

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