Coordinates: 45°0′0″S 0°0′0″E / 45°S 0°E / -45; 0
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of a planet that is south of the equator—the word hemisphere (from the greek word σφαιρα (sphere) +ημι(half)) literally means 'half ball'. It is also that half of the celestial sphere south of the celestial equator.
Earth's southern hemisphere contains all or parts of four continents (Antarctica, Australia, parts of South America and parts of Africa), four oceans (South Atlantic, Indian, South Pacific, and Southern) and most of Oceania. Several islands off the Asian continental mainland are also in the Southern Hemisphere. Due to the tilt of Earth's rotation relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane, summer is December 21 to March 21 and winter is June 21 to September 21. September 22 is the vernal equinox and March 21 is the autumnal equinox.
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