Making simulated cosmic dust—in the microwave

Cosmic dust is the key to the chemical evolution of stars, planets, and life itself, but its composition is not well understood, and we can't currently collect samples for analysis. A few examples have arrived on Earth as ...

Science reveals improvements in Roman building techniques

The Romans were some of the most sophisticated builders of the ancient world. Over the centuries, they adopted an increasingly advanced set of materials and technologies to create their famous structures. To distinguish the ...

How and when was carbon distributed in the Earth?

It is generally accepted that planetary surfaces were covered with molten silicate, a "magma ocean," during the formation of terrestrial planets. In a deep magma ocean, iron would separate from silicate, sink, and eventually ...

Why is the Earth's F/Cl ratio not chondritic?

Primitive chondrites, un-molten stony meteorites, are believed to be the building blocks of the Earth. Because terrestrial planets have experienced chemical differentiation in the core, mantle, and hydrosphere, the elemental ...

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