Related topics: protein · cells · cancer cells · genes · breast cancer

Newly discovered receptor helps to sneak a peek at evolution

Together with lipids, membrane proteins are a central component of all biological membranes and fulfill important functions in transport and information transfer within and between cells. The majority of membrane proteins ...

How plants ensure regular seed spacing

An international team of researchers led by biologists from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) has examined how seed formation is coordinated with fruit growth. In the latest edition of the journal Current Biology, ...

Blocking cellular communication stops SARS-CoV-2

In the transmission of signals within the cell which, for example, stimulate cell growth or trigger metabolic processes, phosphate groups play an important biochemical role. The phosphate groups are often attached to proteins ...

Gene switch ENO identified as a tomato fruit regulator

A team of researchers from Spain, Germany and France has identified the gene switch ENO (excessive number of floral organs) as a tomato fruit regulator. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, ...

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Signal transduction

In biology, 'signal transduction' refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Most processes of signal transduction involve ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and activated by second messengers, resulting in a signal transduction pathway. Such processes are usually rapid, lasting on the order of milliseconds in the case of ion flux, or minutes for the activation of protein- and lipid-mediated kinase cascades, but some can take hours, and even days (as is the case with gene expression), to complete. The number of proteins and other molecules participating in the events involving signal transduction increases as the process emanates from the initial stimulus, resulting in a "signal cascade," beginning with a relatively small stimulus that elicits a large response. This is referred to as amplification of the signal.

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