Related topics: protein · cells · cancer cells · genes · breast cancer

Optical switch illuminates cell development

Combining light and a protein linked to cancer, researchers at Princeton University have created a biological switch to conduct an unprecedented exploration of cellular development in the embryo.

Oxygen deficiency rewires mitochondria

Mitochondria burn oxygen and provide energy for the body. Cells lacking oxygen or nutrients have to change their energy supply quickly in order to keep growing. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing ...

Embryo's early development revealed in a dish

During embryonic development, the entire nervous system, the skin and the sensory organs emerge from a single sheet of cells known as the ectoderm. While there have been extensive studies of how this sheet forms all these ...

Why fruit flies eat practically anything

Say hello to the common fruit fly: a regular guest in most homes, feasting on that banana peel you tossed into the garbage a few days ago.

Mitochondrial unfolded protein response signals imminent danger

Misfolded proteins must be promptly eliminated as they can form toxic aggregates in cells. LMU biologists have studied how this process is triggered in mitochondria and identified a general alarm signal that activates it.

A new signaling pathway for mTor-dependent cell growth

The activation of mTor complex 1 in the cell is central to many vital processes in the body such as cell growth and metabolism. Overactivity of this signaling pathway can result in diseases such as in diabetic insulin resistance ...

Learning from experience is all in the timing

As animals explore their environment, they learn to master it. By discovering what sounds tend to precede predatorial attack, for example, or what smells predict dinner, they develop a kind of biological clairvoyance—a ...

Using a promiscuous inhibitor to uncover cancer drug targets

Scientists at Harvard Medical School and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have developed a method that exploits the multitargeted nature of a chemical inhibitor to pinpoint vulnerabilities within cancer cells.

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Signal transduction

In biology, 'signal transduction' refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Most processes of signal transduction involve ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and activated by second messengers, resulting in a signal transduction pathway. Such processes are usually rapid, lasting on the order of milliseconds in the case of ion flux, or minutes for the activation of protein- and lipid-mediated kinase cascades, but some can take hours, and even days (as is the case with gene expression), to complete. The number of proteins and other molecules participating in the events involving signal transduction increases as the process emanates from the initial stimulus, resulting in a "signal cascade," beginning with a relatively small stimulus that elicits a large response. This is referred to as amplification of the signal.

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