Related topics: protein · cells · cancer cells · genes · breast cancer

Scientists discover a new mechanism to generate cartilage cells

As any weekend warrior understands, cartilage injuries to joints such as knees, shoulders, and hips can prove extremely painful and debilitating. In addition, conditions that cause cartilage degeneration, like arthritis and ...

How a key immune protein is regulated in the cell

Scientists at EPFL have determined how a protein that is critical in our first line of immune defense is regulated in the cell to prevent autoinflammatory diseases.

Glowing tags reveal split-second activity of pathogenic circuitry

Synthetic biologists at Rice University have developed the first technology for observing the real-time activity of some of most common signal-processing circuits in bacteria, including deadly pathogens that use the circuits ...

How a protein breaks free to cause deadly cancers

Better treatments for some of cancer's deadliest forms could be closer due to a University of California, Irvine-led discovery about how a certain protein is activated in tumor cells. The finding, spearheaded by researchers ...

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Signal transduction

In biology, 'signal transduction' refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Most processes of signal transduction involve ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and activated by second messengers, resulting in a signal transduction pathway. Such processes are usually rapid, lasting on the order of milliseconds in the case of ion flux, or minutes for the activation of protein- and lipid-mediated kinase cascades, but some can take hours, and even days (as is the case with gene expression), to complete. The number of proteins and other molecules participating in the events involving signal transduction increases as the process emanates from the initial stimulus, resulting in a "signal cascade," beginning with a relatively small stimulus that elicits a large response. This is referred to as amplification of the signal.

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