Related topics: protein · cells · cancer cells · genes · breast cancer

DNA nanostructures for targeting cellular surface receptors

A broad subset of parameters, which include cell signaling modulation and receptor binding efficiency, can be explored using programmable DNA nanostructures. Glenn Cremers shows how these structures can uncover important ...

Cell biology: How mitochondria report stress

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich researchers have discovered the mechanism by which the protein DELE1 detects organelle stress. This offers a possible new approach for treating neurodegenerative diseases.

How bacteria cope with stress

When exposed to stress, bacteria allow their metabolism to take a break during which they suppress, for example, the incorporation of proteins into membranes. Scientists from Marburg, Freiburg and Munich have discovered this ...

Hunting for human obesity genes in fat fruit flies

Fruit flies provide an effective platform for screening new obesity genes, and fat flies implicate a neuronal signaling pathway in weight gain, according to a new study publishing November 4th in the open-access journal PLOS ...

Oleoyl-LPE exerts neurite stimulation and neuroprotection

Lysophospholipids are phospholipids that have just one fatty acid chain, and in recent years, the role of lysophospholipids in physiology and pathophysiology has attracted attention. Lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) is ...

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Signal transduction

In biology, 'signal transduction' refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Most processes of signal transduction involve ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and activated by second messengers, resulting in a signal transduction pathway. Such processes are usually rapid, lasting on the order of milliseconds in the case of ion flux, or minutes for the activation of protein- and lipid-mediated kinase cascades, but some can take hours, and even days (as is the case with gene expression), to complete. The number of proteins and other molecules participating in the events involving signal transduction increases as the process emanates from the initial stimulus, resulting in a "signal cascade," beginning with a relatively small stimulus that elicits a large response. This is referred to as amplification of the signal.

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