Chemists ID possible addiction-free pain reliever

An estimated 1.7 million Americans suffer from substance abuse disorders related to opioid use for pain relief, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. This causes an economic burden of more than $78 billion per ...

How AI could spur drug development

Using artificial intelligence in drug design would give pharmaceutical research a boost, says Gisbert Schneider. In the medium term, computers could even carry out experiments autonomously.

Nanoparticles may promote cancer metastasis

Nanoparticles can be found in processed food (e.g. food additives), consumer products (e.g. sunscreen) and even in medicine. While these tiny particles could have large untapped potential and novel new applications, they ...

Using biosensors to deliver personalized doses of antibiotics

A team of eight EPFL students has come up with a portable biosensor that can measure the amount of vancomycin in a patient's blood stream, enabling doctors to better control the dosage and reduce harmful side effects. Their ...

Protein analysis enables precise drug targeting

Researchers from MIPT and several U.S. and Chinese universities have solved the structure of one of the most important nervous system proteins in complex with a number of drug molecules. The discovery opens up opportunities ...

New research could significantly accelerate drug discovery

Many drugs work by inhibiting protein enzymes associated with a particular disease. Unfortunately, the same drugs can inhibit protein enzymes unrelated to the disease, resulting in harmful side effects. One potential solution ...

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Adverse effect

In medicine, an adverse effect is a harmful and undesired effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery. An adverse effect may be termed a "side effect", when judged to be secondary to a main or therapeutic effect, and may result from an unsuitable or incorrect dosage or procedure, which could be due to medical error. Adverse effects are sometimes referred to as "iatrogenic" because they are generated by a physician/treatment. Some adverse effects only occur only when starting, increasing or discontinuing a treatment. Using a drug or other medical intervention which is contraindicated may increase the risk of adverse effects. Adverse effects may cause medical complications of a disease or procedure and negatively affect its prognosis. They may also lead to non-compliance with a treatment regimen.

The harmful outcome is usually indicated by some result such as morbidity, mortality, alteration in body weight, levels of enzymes, loss of function, or as a pathological change detected at the microscopic, macroscopic or physiological level. It may also be indicated by symptoms reported by a patient. Adverse effects may cause a reversible or irreversible change, including an increase or decrease in the susceptibility of the individual to other chemicals, foods, or procedures, such as drug interactions.

In clinical trials, a distinction is made between adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs). Generally, any event which causes death, permanent damage, birth defects, or requires hospitalization is considered an SAE. The results of these trials are often included in the labeling of the medication to provide information both for patients and the prescribing physicians.

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