Predicting tvariable carbon dioxide uptake by the ocean

Ocean CO2 uptake is predictable for two years in advance, according to new paper in Science Advances by Dr. Hongmei Li, Dr. Tatiana Ilyina, Dr. Wolfgang A. Müller, and Dr. Peter Landschützer, all scientists in the department ...

North Atlantic warming hole impacts jet stream

The North Atlantic warming hole (NAWH), a region of reduced warming located in the North Atlantic Ocean, significantly affects the North Atlantic jet stream in climate simulations of the future, according to a team of researchers.

Satellite finds Tropical Cyclone Joaninha slammed by wind shear

One day makes a big difference when you're a tropical cyclone. On March 28, Tropical Cyclone Joaninha still maintained an eye, and on March 29, once outside winds ramped up, the storm weakened quickly. NOAA's NOAA-20 satellite ...

NASA finds Tropical Cyclone Joaninha maintaining an eye

Tropical Cyclone Joaninha is not yet ready to close its eye and weaken. Visible imagery from NASA's Terra satellite showed Tropical Cyclone Joaninha maintaining an eye thanks to low wind shear and warm sea surface temperatures.

The forces behind South and Central China's extremely hot summer

The effects of extreme warming have been felt across the globe in recent years, especially with intensely hot summers in eastern Asia, western Europe, and North America. On July 21, 2017, a weather station in Shanghai, China, ...

Ocean heatwaves devastate wildlife, worse to come

Invisible to people but deadly to marine life, ocean heatwaves have damaged ecosystems across the globe and are poised to become even more destructive, according to the first study to measure worldwide impacts with a single ...

Team in monsoon research breakthrough

With average precipitation of 35 inches per four-month season over an area encompassing most of the Indian subcontinent, the South Asia summer monsoon is intense, only partly understood, and notoriously difficult to predict. ...

Simulated ocean mesoscale structures induce air-sea interaction

The mesoscale activities (or mesoscale structures) in the ocean possess immense energy. Such structures (including oceanic fronts and eddies) can induce mesoscale air-sea interaction (MASI) and then greatly impact oceanic ...

Artificial Intelligence to boost Earth system science

A study by German scientists from Jena and Hamburg, published today in the journal Nature, shows that artificial intelligence (AI) can substantially improve our understanding of the climate and the Earth system. Especially ...

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Sea surface temperature

Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the surface.

In practical terms, the exact meaning of surface varies according to the measurement method used. A satellite infrared radiometer indirectly measures the temperature of a very thin layer of about 10 micrometres thick (referred to as the skin) of the ocean which leads to the phrase skin temperature (because infrared radiation is emitted from this layer). A microwave instrument measures subskin temperature at about 1 mm. A thermometer attached to a moored or drifting buoy in the ocean would measure the temperature at a specific depth, (e.g. at 1 meter below the sea surface) — this temperature during the day is called temperature of the warm layer. The measurements routinely made from ships are often from the engine water intakes and may be at various depths in the upper 20 m of the ocean. In fact, this temperature is often called sea surface temperature, or foundation temperature. Note that the depth of measurement in this case will vary with the cargo aboard the vessel.

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