430-million-year-old extinct echinoderm found in England

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers from the U.K. and the U.S. has identified the remains of a 430-million-year-old extinct echinoderm found in a fossil bed in Herefordshire, England. In their paper published in Proceedings ...

Escalating arms race: Predatory sea urchins drive evolution

(Phys.org) -- Nature teems with examples of evolutionary arms races between predators and prey, with the predator species gradually evolving a new mode of attack for each defensive adaptation that arises in the prey species.

Urged on by urchins: How sea lilies got their get-up-and-go

Nature abounds with examples of evolutionary arms races. Certain marine snails, for example, evolved thick shells and spines to avoid be eaten, but crabs and fish foiled the snails by developing shell-crushing claws and jaws.

Colonization in slow motion

There is a wide variety of animals living on the Arctic seabed. Attached to rocks, they feed by removing nutrients from the water using filters or tentacles. But it can take decades for these colonies to become established, ...