Phase transitions in the early universe and their signals

Phase transitions, such as the boiling of water or the melting of a metal, are commonplace but fascinating phenomena that spur surprises decades after decades. They often occur as the temperature of a substance is changed, ...

Mathematicians ask: What's in a ripple?

When a fluid or a gas experiences a sudden disturbance, such as a change in pressure or elevation, it often gives rise to a phenomenon known as an undular bore, which consists of a series of rapid oscillations that propagate ...

Ripples in space key to understanding cosmic rays

In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS (Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface ...

Curiosity rover's sand-dune studies yield surprise

Some of the wind-sculpted sand ripples on Mars are a type not seen on Earth, and their relationship to the thin Martian atmosphere today provides new clues about the atmosphere's history.

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