Scientists identify networks for spikelet formation in barley

Organ development in plants mostly occurs through combinatorial activity of so-called meristems. Meristems are plant cells or tissues that give rise to new organs, similar to stem cells in human—including spikelets. Spikelets ...

New insight into mammalian stem cell evolution

The genes regulating pluripotent stem cells in mammals are surprisingly similar across 48 species, Kyoto University researchers report in the journal Genome Biology and Evolution. The study also shows that differences among ...

Evolutionary conflicts predicted

Evolution seems to be an unpredictable process. However, predicting the constraints of evolution is possible. Researchers from AMOLF and the French ESPCI have demonstrated this using their mathematical method, followed by ...

Making systems robust

The human body keeps the calcium concentration in the blood constant, similarly to an aircraft's autopilot keeping the plane at a constant altitude. What they have in common is that both the body and the autopilot employ ...

Can you evolve while being robust?

It was long thought that DNA, together with the genes encoded in it, determined genetic destiny. But equally important is coordinating when genes are turned on and off. In fact, the regulation of gene expression defines life ...

The origin of flower-making genes

Flowering plants have evolved from plants without flowers. It is known that the function of several genes, called MADS-box genes, creates shapes peculiar to flowers such as stamens, pistils and petals. Plants that do not ...

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