### Three giants of chemistry connected by the quantum realm

This year's Nobel Chemistry winners are pioneers in the nanoworld.

Related topics:
quantum information
· quantum computing
· quantum mechanics
· physical review letters
· quantum physics

This year's Nobel Chemistry winners are pioneers in the nanoworld.

Nanomaterials

4 hours ago

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1

Quantum dots are tiny crystals that scientists can tune to different colors, giving an extra-vivid pop to next-generation TV screens or illuminating tumors inside bodies so surgeons can hunt them down.

Nanophysics

7 hours ago

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106

A research group led by Professor Kenji Ohmori at the Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences are using an artificial crystal of 30,000 atoms aligned in a cubic array with a spacing of 0.5 ...

Quantum Physics

Sep 29, 2023

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294

The popular children's game of telephone is based on a simple premise: The starting player whispers a message into the ear of the next player. That second player then passes along the message to the third person and so on ...

Condensed Matter

Sep 28, 2023

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96

Opening new possibilities for quantum sensors, atomic clocks and tests of fundamental physics, JILA researchers have developed new ways of "entangling" or interlinking the properties of large numbers of particles. In the ...

Quantum Physics

Sep 26, 2023

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177

Researchers from the University of Science and Technology of China(USTC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have developed an ultra-cold atom quantum simulator to study the relationship between the non-equilibrium thermalization ...

Condensed Matter

Sep 22, 2023

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106

For years, researchers have tried various ways to coax quantum bits—or qubits, the basic building blocks of quantum computers—to remain in their quantum state for ever-longer times, a key step in creating devices like ...

Condensed Matter

Sep 7, 2023

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269

Window glass, at the microscopic level, shows a strange mix of properties. Like a liquid, its atoms are disordered, but like a solid, its atom are rigid, so a force applied to one atom causes all of them to move.

Condensed Matter

Sep 6, 2023

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210

Researchers have a new way to connect quantum devices over long distances, a necessary step toward allowing the technology to play a role in future communications systems.

Optics & Photonics

Aug 30, 2023

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185

Does hot water freeze faster than cold water? Aristotle may have been the first to tackle this question that later became known as the Mpemba effect.

Soft Matter

Aug 29, 2023

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155

In quantum physics, a **quantum state** is a mathematical object that fully describes a quantum system. One typically imagines some experimental apparatus and procedure which "prepares" this quantum state; the mathematical object then reflects the setup of the apparatus. Quantum states can be statistically mixed, corresponding to an experiment involving a random change of the parameters. States obtained in this way are called **mixed states**, as opposed to **pure states**, which cannot be described as a mixture of others. When performing a certain measurement on a quantum state, the result generally described by a probability distribution, and the form that this distribution takes is completely determined by the quantum state and the observable describing the measurement. However, unlike in classical mechanics, the result of a measurement on even a pure quantum state is only determined probabilistically. This reflects a core difference between classical and quantum physics.

Mathematically, a pure quantum state is typically represented by a vector in a Hilbert space. In physics, bra-ket notation is often used to denote such vectors. Linear combinations (superpositions) of vectors can describe interference phenomena. Mixed quantum states are described by density matrices.

In a more general mathematical context, quantum states can be understood as positive normalized linear functionals on a C* algebra; see GNS construction.

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