### Ghostly particles detected in condensates of light and matter

Bose-condensed quantum fluids are not forever. Such states include superfluids and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs).

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Bose-condensed quantum fluids are not forever. Such states include superfluids and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs).

Quantum Physics

Jan 23, 2020

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1293

A new technique to study the properties of molecules and materials on a quantum simulator has been discovered.

Quantum Physics

Jan 21, 2020

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271

Quantum physics is moving out of the laboratory and into everyday life. Despite headline results about quantum computers solving problems impossible for classical computers, technical challenges are standing in the way of ...

Quantum Physics

Jan 17, 2020

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693

The concept of universal physics is intriguing, as it enables researchers to relate physical phenomena in a variety of systems, irrespective of their varying characteristics and complexities. Ultracold atomic systems are ...

A team of researchers from the University of Innsbruck and the Austrian Academy of Sciences has developed a way to verify the output from one quantum computer by comparing it to the output of another quantum computer. In ...

The ice we blend into our frozen drinks is a complicated compound, riddled with strange molecular inconsistencies scientists still struggle to understand. Exploring the physics behind the odd microstructure of water-ice may ...

General Physics

Jan 08, 2020

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246

When a semiconducting nanowire is coupled to a superconductor, it can be tuned to topological quantum states thought to host localized quasiparticles known as Majorana Zero Modes (MZM). MZMs are their own antiparticles, with ...

A device that can separate and recombine pairs of electrons may offer a way to study an unusual form of superconductivity, according to RIKEN physicists. This superconducting state would involve exotic particles called Majorana ...

Superconductivity

Dec 27, 2019

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470

The ability to investigate the dynamics of single particle at the nano-scale and femtosecond level remained an unfathomed dream for years. It was not until the dawn of the 21st century that nanotechnology and femtoscience ...

Optics & Photonics

Dec 09, 2019

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9

A new, paper-based sensor developed by University of Alberta chemists can detect two potent nerve toxins that have reportedly been used in chemical warfare.

Analytical Chemistry

Dec 09, 2019

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81

In quantum physics, a **quantum state** is a mathematical object that fully describes a quantum system. One typically imagines some experimental apparatus and procedure which "prepares" this quantum state; the mathematical object then reflects the setup of the apparatus. Quantum states can be statistically mixed, corresponding to an experiment involving a random change of the parameters. States obtained in this way are called **mixed states**, as opposed to **pure states**, which cannot be described as a mixture of others. When performing a certain measurement on a quantum state, the result generally described by a probability distribution, and the form that this distribution takes is completely determined by the quantum state and the observable describing the measurement. However, unlike in classical mechanics, the result of a measurement on even a pure quantum state is only determined probabilistically. This reflects a core difference between classical and quantum physics.

Mathematically, a pure quantum state is typically represented by a vector in a Hilbert space. In physics, bra-ket notation is often used to denote such vectors. Linear combinations (superpositions) of vectors can describe interference phenomena. Mixed quantum states are described by density matrices.

In a more general mathematical context, quantum states can be understood as positive normalized linear functionals on a C* algebra; see GNS construction.

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