Rainforest conservation in Peru must become more effective

A few years ago, the Peruvian government launched a program to protect the rainforest. However, an analysis by the Center for Development Research (ZEF) at the University of Bonn shows that its effect is small. But the researchers ...

Peru's Quelccaya ice cap could meet its demise by mid-2050s

If warming trends continue, Quelccaya, which until recently was the world's largest tropical ice cap, will have reached a state of irreversible retreat by the mid-2050s, according to a new study led by University at Albany ...

Peru in danger of losing its national cinchona tree

Pre-Columbian people used its bark as a medicine while South American liberator Simon Bolivar adopted it in Peru's coat of arms, but the cinchona tree is facing a battle for survival as vast swathes of forest are chopped ...

River dolphins in Peru satellite tagged for first time

Across their range in South America, the iconic pink river dolphin faces an increasingly uncertain future. Water pollution, dam construction, poaching and bycatch pose serious threats to these amazing creatures, which play ...

Chile battling to save a favorite clam

Long one of the country's favorite seafoods, Chile's macha clam has become a victim of its own popularity, with over-exploitation forcing authorities to ban clam fishing in all but a few areas to help stocks recover.

Peru reconstructs face of woman who ruled 1,700 years ago

Introducing the Lady of Cao: using high-tech 3-D printing and based on the skull of an ancient mummy, scientists have reconstructed the face of a woman who governed in northern Peru 1,700 years ago.

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Peru

Peru i/pəˈruː/ (Spanish: Perú; Quechua: Perú; Aymara: Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: República del Perú, pronounced: [reˈpuβlika ðel peˈɾu] ( listen)), is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.

Peruvian territory was home to the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, and to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. After achieving independence in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.

Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes Mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 31%. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles.

The Peruvian population, estimated at 29.5 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans, and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

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