Immunoproteasome crystal structure determined

Like a shredder, the immunoproteasome cuts down proteins into peptides that are subsequently presented on the cellular surface. The immune system can distinguish between self and nonself peptides and selectively kills cells ...

Researchers block morphine's itchy side effect

Itching is one of the most prevalent side effects of powerful, pain-killing drugs like morphine, oxycodone and other opioids. The opiate-associated itch is so common that even women who get epidurals for labor pain often ...

Understanding the APJ Receptor Binding Site

(PhysOrg.com) -- Apelin is a recently discovered peptide that binds to the apelin (or APJ) G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin-13 (NH2-QRPRLSHKGPMPF-COOH), one of several cleavage products of the proprotein form of the apelin ...

How to get obese mice moving -- and cure their diabetes

Mice lacking the fat hormone leptin or the ability to respond to it become morbidly obese and severely diabetic—not to mention downright sluggish. Now, a new study in the June Cell Metabolism shows that blood sugar control ...

Sniffing Out the Physical Condition of Conspecifics

To date, it has been unknown exactly how mammals are capable of sniffing out whether a conspecific is ill. The biologists Prof. Marc Spehr and Daniela Flügge are following a good lead. They have discovered that a messenger ...

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