Rubies on sapphire: Recipe for making crystals in flux

Crystals can be made artificially but a lot of energy is used to melt the ingredients together, and this can make them expensive. This problem can be overcome by using appropriate solvents. Called the flux method, crystals ...

Astronomers find formula for subsurface oceans in exomoons

So far, the search for extraterrestrial life has focused on planets at a distance from their star where liquid water is possible on the surface. But within our Solar System, most of the liquid water seems to be outside this ...

Rejuvenating metallic glass to prevent fracturing

A team of researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the University of Cambridge has found a way to rejuvenate metallic glass to prevent it from fracturing. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group ...

Chemist develops technique to improve solar cells

A RUDN University chemist has discovered four new stable compounds that can be obtained in the reaction of iodine with methylammonium iodide—the use of these substances will allow the production of perovskite solar panels ...

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Melting

Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase change of a substance from a solid to a liquid. The internal energy of a substance is increased, typically by the application of heat or pressure, resulting in a rise of its temperature to the melting point, at which the rigid ordering of molecular entities in the solid breaks down to a less-ordered state and the solid liquefies. An object that has melted completely is molten. Substances in the molten state generally have reduced viscosity with elevated temperature; an exception to this maxim is the element sulfur, whose viscosity increases with higher temperatures in its molten state.

Some organic compounds melt through mesophases, states of partial order between solid and liquid.

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