Understanding climate tipping points

As the planet warms, many parts of the Earth system are undergoing large-scale changes. Ice sheets are shrinking, sea levels are rising and coral reefs are dying off.

UN report warns of catastrophic risks to Earth systems

Melting glaciers, unbearable heat and space junk: a month before crunch climate talks in the United Arab Emirates, a UN report published Wednesday warns about irreversible impacts to the planet without drastic changes to ...

Cleaner snow boosts future snowpack predictions

Less pollution settling into snow should help cut the decline of snowpack in the Northern Hemisphere later this century. Though the snowpack will still diminish due to rising temperatures, the outlook is less dire when the ...

Is statistical modeling for glacier loss accurate?

Glacier loss is a pressing concern worldwide, with ice melt impacting freshwater supplies, sea-level rise and ocean circulation. Often, global glacier models are employed to better understand the extent of this threat, such ...

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Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase change of a substance from a solid to a liquid. The internal energy of a substance is increased, typically by the application of heat or pressure, resulting in a rise of its temperature to the melting point, at which the rigid ordering of molecular entities in the solid breaks down to a less-ordered state and the solid liquefies. An object that has melted completely is molten. Substances in the molten state generally have reduced viscosity with elevated temperature; an exception to this maxim is the element sulfur, whose viscosity increases with higher temperatures in its molten state.

Some organic compounds melt through mesophases, states of partial order between solid and liquid.

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