A new mathematical model predicts a knot's stability

In sailing, rock climbing, construction, and any activity requiring the securing of ropes, certain knots are known to be stronger than others. Any seasoned sailor knows, for instance, that one type of knot will secure a sheet ...

Generosity leads to evolutionary success, biologists show

With new insights into the classical game theory match-up known as the "Prisoner's Dilemma," University of Pennsylvania biologists offer a mathematically based explanation for why cooperation and generosity have evolved in ...

Encryption is less secure than we thought

Information theory—the discipline that gave us digital communication and data compression—also put cryptography on a secure mathematical foundation. Since 1948, when the paper that created information theory first appeared, ...

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