Bottles made of lignocellulose, perfumes made from apples

Many companies are working on materials that would be as light and resistant as plastic but at the same time fully biodegradable. What if they could be made from... rubbish? A modern, ecological (waste-free—the conversion ...

Small currents for big gains in spintronics

University of Tokyo researchers have created an electronic component that demonstrates functions and abilities important to future generations of computational logic and memory devices. It is between one and two orders of ...

Recreating ancient minerals

When it comes to making a lasting impression in geological history, the medium makes all the difference, especially in the Earth's paleo-oceans. Here, during the Archean Eon (4,000-2,500 million years ago) and at times during ...

Strength in numbers for 3-D printing

Additive manufacturing, also called 3-D printing, is commonly used to build complex three-dimensional objects, layer by layer. A*STAR researchers have shown that the process can also help to make a high-performance alloy ...

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Manganese ( /ˈmæŋɡəniːz/ mang-gə-neez) is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature (often in combination with iron), and in many minerals. As a free element, manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels.

Manganese phosphating is used as a treatment for rust and corrosion prevention on steel. Depending on their oxidation state, manganese ions have various colors and are used industrially as pigments. The permanganates of alkali and alkaline earth metals are powerful oxidizers. Manganese dioxide is used as the cathode (electron acceptor) material in standard and alkaline disposable dry cells and batteries.

Manganese(II) ions function as cofactors for a number of enzymes in higher organisms, where they are essential in detoxification of superoxide free radicals. The element is a required trace mineral for all known living organisms. In larger amounts, and apparently with far greater activity by inhalation, manganese can cause a poisoning syndrome in mammals, with neurological damage which is sometimes irreversible.

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