Preserving the past in 3-D

It isn't often that you get a sunny, 70-degree day in the beginning of February, especially less than a week after a record-setting cold snap plunged most of Illinois into subzero temperatures. We certainly aren't about to ...

How can forests regenerate without birds?

Human activity continues to shape environmental systems around the world creating novel ecosystems that are increasingly prevalent in what some scientists call the Anthropocene (the age of humans). The island of Guam is well ...

Only above-water microbes play a role in cave development

Only the microbes located above the water's surface contribute to the development of hydrogen-sulfide-rich caves, suggests an international team of researchers. Since 2004, researchers have been studying the Frasassi cave ...

Western Wall weathering: Extreme erosion explained

Visitors to the Western Wall in Jerusalem can see that some of its stones are extremely eroded. This is good news for people placing prayer notes in the wall's cracks and crevices, but presents a problem for engineers concerned ...

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Limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera.

Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock.

Limestone has numerous uses, including as a building material, as aggregate to form the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, and as a chemical feedstock.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA