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Novel MOF is potential next-gen semiconductor

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are emerging multi-functional materials that are gradually finding their way out of the research labs and into a myriad of real-world applications. For example, MOFs can store dangerous gasses, ...

Seeding oceans with iron may not impact climate change

Historically, the oceans have done much of the planet's heavy lifting when it comes to sequestering carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Microscopic organisms known collectively as phytoplankton, which grow throughout the ...

Chemist synthesizes gold-based electrocatalysts

A RUDN chemist has synthesized an electrocatalyst based on gold nanoparticles with organic ligands that can trigger both hydrogen production reactions and oxygen reduction reactions in fuel cells. The yield of products with ...

Researchers solve protein structures to fight asthma

Biophysicists from the MIPT Center for Molecular Mechanisms of Aging and Age-Related Diseases have teamed up with colleagues from Canada, the U.S., Japan, France, and Germany to shed light on the structure and functioning ...

Faster modeling of interactions between ligands and proteins

A computational method for simulating the interaction between small molecules and proteins has been enhanced by an all-RIKEN team. This improvement promises to boost the speed and accuracy of designing new drugs.

Stabilizing ligands make nanoclusters brighter

Metal nanoclusters that bear tunable surface ligands could help develop next-generation imaging and photocatalytic approaches, suggests work by KAUST researchers.

Synthetic compound provides fast screening for potential drugs

A simple assay may benefit drug discovery for treating diabetes, Parkinson's, and Alzheimers disease, as well as studies of functional food and endocrine disruptor report researchers at Okayama University in the Journal of ...

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Ligand

In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (see also: functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex. The bonding between metal and ligand generally involves formal donation of one or more of the ligand's electron pairs. The nature of metal-ligand bonding can range from covalent to ionic. Furthermore, the metal-ligand bond order can range from one to three. Ligands are viewed as Lewis bases, although rare cases are known involving Lewis acidic "ligands."

Metal and metalloids are bound to ligands in virtually all circumstances, although gaseous "naked" metal ions can be generated in high vacuum. Ligands in a complex dictate the reactivity of the central atom, including ligand substitution rates, the reactivity of the ligands themselves, and redox. Ligand selection is a critical consideration in many practical areas, including bioinorganic and medicinal chemistry, homogeneous catalysis, and environmental chemistry.

Ligands are classified in many ways: their charge, their size (bulk), the identity of the coordinating atom(s), and the number of electrons donated to the metal (denticity or hapticity). The size of a ligand is indicated by its cone angle.

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