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Chemists synthesize a new hybrid organic-inorganic catalyst

RUDN chemists have synthesized metal complexes on the basis of the organoelemental substance silsesquioxane that consists of an organic and an inorganic part. Such hybrid systems may be used as efficient catalysts, for example, ...

Chemist develops a new catalyst for oxidation and amidation

A RUDN chemist has obtained a compound with a new structural type containing atoms of metals (copper and sodium) in a carcass structure and that is shaped like a bicycle helmet. The compound shows catalytic activity in two ...

Researchers develop a cheap, targeted antibacterial compound

An international scientific group including a RUDN chemist have developed a complex copper-based compound with stronger antibacterial properties compared to analogs, and is cheaper to produce. The scientists confirmed that ...

Subtlety and the selective art of separating lanthanides

Lanthanide elements are essential parts of today's high-tech commodities including flat-screen TVs, cell phones, electric cars, and satellites. While the demand for these elements is high, separating lanthanides from impurities ...

Tracing iron in the North Pacific

The micronutrient iron (Fe) is recognized as a key factor in controlling oceanic primary productivity, and subsequently impacting the carbon cycle and marine ecosystem. The high-latitude area of the North Pacific is one of ...

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Ligand

In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (see also: functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex. The bonding between metal and ligand generally involves formal donation of one or more of the ligand's electron pairs. The nature of metal-ligand bonding can range from covalent to ionic. Furthermore, the metal-ligand bond order can range from one to three. Ligands are viewed as Lewis bases, although rare cases are known involving Lewis acidic "ligands."

Metal and metalloids are bound to ligands in virtually all circumstances, although gaseous "naked" metal ions can be generated in high vacuum. Ligands in a complex dictate the reactivity of the central atom, including ligand substitution rates, the reactivity of the ligands themselves, and redox. Ligand selection is a critical consideration in many practical areas, including bioinorganic and medicinal chemistry, homogeneous catalysis, and environmental chemistry.

Ligands are classified in many ways: their charge, their size (bulk), the identity of the coordinating atom(s), and the number of electrons donated to the metal (denticity or hapticity). The size of a ligand is indicated by its cone angle.

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