Related topics: cells · heart disease · protein · immune system · immune cells

A nutrition solution can help heat-stressed cows as US warms

Rising temperatures pose major challenges to the dairy industry—a Holstein's milk production can decline 30 to 70% in warm weather—but a new Cornell-led study has found a nutrition-based solution to restore milk production ...

Understanding how microbiota thrive in their human hosts

A research team lead by scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Biology, Tübingen, Germany, has now made substantial progress in understanding how gut bacteria succeed in their human hosts on a molecular level. They ...

Revealing the function of Mkx in periodontal ligament homeostasis

In molecular biology, transcription is the process of copying a segment of DNA into RNA, whereas a transcription factor (or TF) is a protein that controls the rate of copying this segment. The segments of DNA transcribed ...

Now is the time for lawmakers to care about microplastics

If the word 'microplastics' conjures up thoughts of straws, sea turtles, and thoughts that the world has bigger problems, you're definitely not alone. It's in the name: although they are strictly defined as plastic particles ...

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Inflammation

Inflammation (Latin, inflamatio, to set on fire) is the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli as well as initiate the healing process for the tissue. Inflammation is not a synonym for infection. Even in cases where inflammation is caused by infection, the two are not synonymous: infection is caused by an exogenous pathogen, while inflammation is the response of the organism to the pathogen.

In the absence of inflammation, wounds and infections would never heal and progressive destruction of the tissue would compromise the survival of the organism. However, an inflammation that runs unchecked can also lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, atherosclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. It is for that reason that inflammation is normally closely regulated by the body.

Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes from the blood into the injured tissues. A cascade of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, and various cells within the injured tissue. Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells which are present at the site of inflammation and is characterised by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process.

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