For bacteria, the neighbors co-determine which cell dies first

Bacteria do not simply perish in hunger phases fortuitously; rather, the surrounding cells have a say as well. A research team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now discovered that two factors, above all, ...

How multicellular cyanobacteria transport molecules

Researchers from ETH Zurich and the University of Tübingen have taken a high-resolution look at the structure and function of cell-to-cell connections in filamentous, multicellular cyanobacteria. This enables them to explain ...

The battle between virus and host cell

When viruses enter the body, such as during an influenza or a gastrointestinal infection, the processes within the infected cells change: In the worst case, the virus takes the helm and reprograms the cell to its advantage. ...

Solving problems on a quantum chessboard

Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. In a recent paper, they demonstrate ...

Targeting individual atoms

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most important methods of physicochemical analysis. It can be used to determine precise molecular structures and dynamics. The importance of this method is also ...

The dark side of personality

Social life entails countless situations in which people have to trust each other. From mundane family matters to profane issues such as trade negotiations among world leaders in a conflicted globalized world—all require ...

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Individual

As commonly used, individual refers to a person or to any specific object in a collection. In the 15th century and earlier, and also today within the fields of statistics and metaphysics, individual means "indivisible", typically describing any numerically singular thing, but sometimes meaning "a person." (q.v. "The problem of proper names"). From the seventeenth century on, individual indicates separateness, as in individualism. Individuality is the state or quality of being an individual; a person separate from other persons and possessing his or her own needs, goals, and desires.

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