Indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide) is a solid solution of indium(III) oxide (In2O3) and tin(IV) oxide (SnO2), typically 90% In2O3, 10% SnO2 by weight. It is transparent and colorless in thin layers. In bulk form, it is yellowish to grey. In the infrared region of the spectrum it is a metal-like mirror.
Indium tin oxide's main feature is the combination of electrical conductivity and optical transparency. However, a compromise has to be reached during film deposition, as high concentration of charge carriers will increase the material's conductivity, but decrease its transparency.
Thin films of indium tin oxide are most commonly deposited on surfaces by electron beam evaporation, physical vapor deposition, or a range of sputter deposition techniques.
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