Improved heat-resistant wheat varieties are identified

Wheat, in its own right, is one of the most important foods in the world. It is a staple food for more than 2.5 billion people, it provides 20% of the protein consumed worldwide and, according to the FAO, supplies more calories ...

Genes controlling mycorrhizal colonization discovered in soybean

Like most plants, soybeans pair up with soil fungi in a symbiotic mycorrhizal relationship. In exchange for a bit of sugar, the fungus acts as an extension of the root system to pull in more phosphorus, nitrogen, micronutrients, ...

Comparing antioxidants levels in tomatoes of different color

Naturally occurring antioxidants have been of great interest in recent years due to their recognizable health benefits. A study out of Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana in Mexico has clarified differing antioxidant levels ...

Coral bleaching increases disease risk in threatened species

Bleaching events caused by rising water temperatures could increase mortality among a coral species already threatened by disease, says new research by Mote Marine Laboratory and Penn State, US, published in eLife.

Researchers isolate parvovirus from ancient human remains

Airborne and bloodborne human parvovirus B19 causes a number of illnesses, including the childhood rash known as fifth disease, chronic anemia in AIDS patients, arthritis in elderly people, aplastic crisis in people with ...

Size does not always matter for root systems

Scientists will dramatically change the direction of their breeding efforts to improve nitrogen uptake by wheat, after the release of findings suggesting wheat genotypes with smaller root systems might be better suited to ...

Avocado farmers face unique foe in fungal-farming beetle

(Phys.org) —Beetles with unusual "green thumbs" for growing fungi are threatening avocado crops and could transform into a more destructive pest, according to an international team of researchers.

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Genotyping

Genotyping is the process of determining differences in the genetic make-up (genotype) of an individual by examining the individual's DNA sequence using biological assays and comparing it to another individual's sequence or a reference sequence. It reveals the alleles an individual has inherited from their parents . Traditionally genotyping is the use of DNA sequences to define biological populations by use of molecular tools. It does not usually involve defining the genes of an individual.

Current methods of genotyping include restriction fragment length polymorphism identification (RFLPI) of genomic DNA, random amplified polymorphic detection (RAPD) of genomic DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism detection (AFLPD), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) probes, and hybridization to DNA microarrays or beads. Genotyping is important in research of genes and gene variants associated with disease. Due to current technological limitations, almost all genotyping is partial. That is, only a small fraction of an individual’s genotype is determined. New mass-sequencing technologies promise to provide whole-genome genotyping (or whole genome sequencing) in the future.

Genotyping applies to a broad range of individuals, including microorganisms. For example, viruses and bacteria can be genotyped. Genotyping in this context may help in controlling the spreading of pathogens, by tracing the origin of outbreaks. This area is often referred to as molecular epidemiology or forensic microbiology.

Humans can also be genotyped. For example, when testing fatherhood or motherhood, scientists typically only need to examine 10 or 20 genomic regions (like single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs)). That is a tiny fraction of the human genome, which consists of three billion or so nucleotides.

When genotyping transgenic organisms, a single genomic region may be all that needs to be examined to determine the genotype. A single PCR assay is typically enough to genotype a transgenic mouse; the mouse is the mammalian model of choice for much of medical research today.

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