Researcher uses network science to understand how materials work

Network science is how mathematicians and software designers construct complicated social networks like Facebook. But a group of Florida State University researchers has found that these equations can tell engineers a lot ...

Battle for space more stealth than Star Wars

At tens of thousands of kilometers above the Earth, a Russian satellite slowly approached the French-Italian satellite Athena-Fidus in October 2017, a move France later denounced as "an act of espionage."

Some piezoelectric materials may be 'fakes'

Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is the most widespread technique for characterising piezoelectric properties at the nanoscale, i.e., for determining the ability of some materials to generate electricity when subjected ...

Driving force of volcanic super-hazards uncovered

Massey volcanologists have discovered the driving force behind superheated gas-and-ash clouds from volcanic eruptions, which may help save lives and infrastructure around the globe.

How do muscle and tendon connections last a lifetime?

Muscles are connected to tendons to power animal movements such as running, swimming or flying. Forces are produced by contractile chains of the proteins actin and myosin, which pull on muscle-tendon connections called attachments. ...

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Force

In physics, a force is any influence that causes an object to undergo a change in speed, a change in direction, or a change in shape. In other words, a force is that which can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate, or which can cause a flexible object to deform. Force can also be described by intuitive concepts such as a push or pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. Newton's second law, F=ma, was originally formulated in slightly different, but equivalent terms: the original version states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes.

Related concepts to force include: thrust, which increases the velocity of an object; drag, which decreases the velocity of an object; and torque which produces changes in rotational speed of an object. Forces which do not act uniformly on all parts of a body will also cause mechanical stresses, a technical term for influences which cause deformation of matter. While mechanical stress can remain embedded in a solid object, gradually deforming it, mechanical stress in a fluid determines changes in its pressure and volume.

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