Neurotoxicological hazard assessment without animal testing

The development of our nervous system in the womb and during the first years of life is a highly complicated process: Nerve cells proliferate by cell division, specialize, change their position in the tissue and interconnect ...

Microfossil spectroscopy dates Earth's first animals

Molecular clock dates for the first animals to walk the Earth don't match the fossil record. Comparing the disparate DNA of two different species and extrapolating how long it would take for them to mutate from a common ancestor ...

Tiny 'water bears' can teach us about survival

Earth's ultimate survivors can weather extreme heat, cold, radiation and even the vacuum of space. Now the U.S. military hopes these tiny critters called tardigrades can teach us about true toughness.

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