New study characterizes behavior of human plastins in cells

A family of proteins that have a role in ensuring many types of cells move and maintain their shape may promote disease when they act like workaholics and disrupt the cellular environment, new research suggests.

The fungal effector Rip 1 suppresses maize host defense responses

Plant colonization by biotrophic pathogens requires sophisticated strategies for tissue invasion, defense suppression and metabolic manipulation to loot nutrients necessary for their growth and reproduction. The biotrophic ...

Potential protection from atherosclerosis

PON1 (paraoxonase 1), an enzyme associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL), breaks down lipid peroxides, highly reactive fatty molecules that can damage blood vessels.

New findings shed light on the repair of UV-induced DNA damage

An international research team has clarified the regulatory mechanism of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in recognizing and repairing DNA that has been damaged by ultraviolet (UV) light. The investigators at Kobe University ...

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Enzyme catalysis

Enzyme catalysis is the catalysis of chemical reactions by specialized proteins known as enzymes. Catalysis of biochemical reactions in the cell is vital due to the very low reaction rates of the uncatalysed reactions.

The mechanism of enzyme catalysis is similar in principle to other types of chemical catalysis. By providing an alternative reaction route and by stabilizing intermediates the enzyme reduces the energy required to reach the highest energy transition state of the reaction. The reduction of activation energy (ΔG) increases the number of reactant molecules with enough energy to reach the activation energy and form the product.

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