Related topics: magnetic field · superconductors

A peculiar ground-state phase for 2-D superconductors

The application of large enough magnetic fields results in the disruption of superconducting states in materials, even at drastically low temperature, thereby changing them directly into insulators—or so was traditionally ...

Approaching the magnetic singularity

In many materials, electrical resistance and voltage change in the presence of a magnetic field, usually varying smoothly as the magnetic field rotates. This simple magnetic response underlies many applications including ...

Shocking economics

Modern macroeconomics has failed to produce an understanding of economies in times of crisis. Modern macroeconomics are still based on the assumption of equilibria, but a shock pushes economies out of a state of equilibrium. ...

New smart material works better under pressure

Advanced robotics sensitive touch or next-generation wearable devices with sophisticated sensing capabilities could soon be possible following the development of a rubber that combines flexibility with high electrical conductivity.

Semimetals are high conductors

Researchers in China and at UC Davis have measured high conductivity in very thin layers of niobium arsenide, a type of material called a Weyl semimetal. The material has about three times the conductivity of copper at room ...

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Electrical resistance

The electrical resistance of an object is a measure of its opposition to the passage of a steady electric current. An object of uniform cross section will have a resistance proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area, and proportional to the resistivity of the material.

Discovered by Georg Ohm in the late 1820s, electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the mechanical notion of friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm, symbol Ω. Resistance's reciprocal quantity is electrical conductance measured in siemens, symbol S.

The resistance of a resistive object determines the amount of current through the object for a given potential difference across the object, in accordance with Ohm's law:

where

For a wide variety of materials and conditions, the electrical resistance does not depend on the amount of current through or the amount of voltage across the object, meaning that the resistance R is constant for the given temperature. Therefore, the resistance of an object can be defined as the ratio of voltage to current:

In the case of nonlinear objects (not purely resistive, or not obeying Ohm's law), this ratio can change as current or voltage changes; the ratio taken at any particular point, the inverse slope of a chord to an I–V curve, is sometimes referred to as a "chordal resistance" or "static resistance".

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