The building blocks for astronomically literate citizens

What does it mean for a citizen to be literate in astronomy? Astronomers who participate in outreach to the general public experience various degrees of astronomical knowledge among people. But so far, there had not been ...

Facebook auto-generates videos celebrating extremist images

The animated video begins with a photo of the black flags of jihad. Seconds later, it flashes highlights of a year of social media posts: plaques of anti-Semitic verses, talk of retribution and a photo of two men carrying ...

EU Court says public must have access to weed killer studies

An EU high court says that the European Food Safety Authority should not have refused the public access to studies on the possible harmful effect of the weed killer glyphosate on humans—documents that were used in a decision ...

Why do people still use fax machines?

The fax machine is a symbol of obsolete technology long superseded by computer networks – but faxing is actually growing in popularity.

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Document

The term document has more meanings in ordinary language and in scholarship. WordNet 3.1. lists four meanings (October 2011):

In Library and information science and in documentation science is "document" considered a basic theoretical construct. It is everything which may be preserved or represented in order to serve as evidence for some purpose. The classical example provided by Suzanne Briet is an antelope: "An antelope running wild on the plains of Africa should not be considered a document, she rules. But if it were to be captured, taken to a zoo and made an object of study, it has been made into a document. It has become physical evidence being used by those who study it. Indeed, scholarly articles written about the antelope are secondary documents, since the antelope itself is the primary document." (Quoted from Buckland, 1998 ). (This view has been seen as an early expression of what now is known as actor–network theory).

That documents cannot be defined by their transmission medium (such as paper) is evident because of the existence of electronic documents.

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