Related topics: quantum computing · carbon

Searching for new particles using quantum sensors

In a recent study published in the journal National Science Review, a laboratory search for exotic spin-dependent interactions was conducted with an ensemble-NV-diamond magnetometer. New experimental constraints on two types ...

A single-step water treatment for arsenic decontamination

A team of researchers from Imperial College London led by Prof. Dominik Weiss has been working with Diamond Light Source, the UK's national synchrotron on a new material (TiO2/Fe2O3 nanomaterial) combining photocatalytic ...

Gaining structural insight into the influenza virus

A team of scientists at University of Oxford have worked with multiple techniques at Diamond Light Source, to solve the structure of the influenza replication machinery and to determine how it interacts with cellular proteins. ...

Grimy windows could be harbouring toxic pollutants

Dirty windows can harbor potentially harmful pollutants under protective films of fatty acids from cooking emissions—and these can hang around over long periods of time.

It's raining diamonds across the universe, research suggests

It could be raining diamonds on planets throughout the universe, scientists suggested Friday, after using common plastic to recreate the strange precipitation believed to form deep inside Uranus and Neptune.

page 1 from 40


In mineralogy, diamond (from the ancient Greek αδάμας – adámas "unbreakable") is an allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at ambient conditions. Diamond is renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. In particular, diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any bulk material. Those properties determine the major industrial application of diamond in cutting and polishing tools.

Diamond has remarkable optical characteristics. Because of its extremely rigid lattice, it can be contaminated by very few types of impurities, such as boron and nitrogen. Combined with wide transparency, this results in the clear, colorless appearance of most natural diamonds. Small amounts of defects or impurities (about one per million of lattice atoms) color diamond blue (boron), yellow (nitrogen), brown (lattice defects), green (radiation exposure), purple, pink, orange or red. Diamond also has relatively high optical dispersion (ability to disperse light of different colors), which results in its characteristic luster. Excellent optical and mechanical properties, combined with efficient marketing, make diamond the most popular gemstone.

Most natural diamonds are formed at high-pressure high-temperature conditions existing at depths of 140 to 190 kilometers (87 to 120 mi) in the Earth mantle. Carbon-containing minerals provide the carbon source, and the growth occurs over periods from 1 billion to 3.3 billion years (25% to 75% of the age of the Earth). Diamonds are brought close to the Earth surface through deep volcanic eruptions by a magma, which cools into igneous rocks known as kimberlites and lamproites. Diamonds can also be produced synthetically in a high-pressure high-temperature process which approximately simulates the conditions in the Earth mantle. An alternative, and completely different growth technique is chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several non-diamond materials, which include cubic zirconia and silicon carbide and are often called diamond simulants, resemble diamond in appearance and many properties. Special gemological techniques have been developed to distinguish natural and synthetic diamonds and diamond simulants.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA