Using probiotic bacteria to protect against coral bleaching

Images of bare, naked white coral reefs have been increasingly circulating around the world. The typically colorful reefs of tropical oceans, which are home to many species of the marine ecosystem, are suffering from rising ...

Coral fights back against crown of thorns starfish

Coral can fight back against attacking juvenile crown of thorns starfish—using stinging cells to injure and even kill, showing that coral are not as passive as people may think.

Quantum leaps in understanding how living corals survive

Coral reefs have thrived for millions of years in their shallow ocean water environments due to their unique partnerships with the algae that live in their tissues. Corals provide a safe haven and carbon dioxide while their ...

Coral decline—is sunscreen a scapegoat?

Many household products contain ingredients to protect them against sun damage. These UV filters are found in plastics, paints and textiles, as well as personal care products such as sunscreens and moisturizers. UV filters ...

page 1 from 21


Bleach refers to a number of chemicals that remove color, whiten, or disinfect, often via oxidation. Common chemical bleaches include household chlorine bleach (a solution of approximately 3–6% sodium hypochlorite, NaClO), lye, oxygen bleach (which contains either hydrogen peroxide or a peroxide-releasing compound), and bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite). The bleaching process was known to most ancient civilizations and has been around for thousands of years. Modern bleaches resulted from the work of 18th century scientists including Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, French scientists Claude Berthollet and Antoine Germain Labarraque, and Scottish chemist Charles Tennant. Household chlorine bleach is created in two ways: by separating sodium hypochlorite from sea water or brine using electrolysis, or by adding chlorine gas to sodium hydroxide which produces sodium hypochlorite, water and sodium chloride.

Many bleaches have strong bactericidal properties, and are used for disinfecting and sterilizing.

Examples of peroxide-releasing compounds are sodium perborate, sodium percarbonate, sodium persulfate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, or urea peroxide together with catalysts and activators, e.g., tetraacetylethylenediamine or sodium nonanoyloxybenzenesulfonate.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA