Great Barrier Reef annual mass coral spawning begins

A mass coral spawning has begun on Australia's Great Barrier Reef, with early indications the annual event could be among the biggest in recent years, local marine biologists said Sunday.

Great Barrier Reef island coral decline

A long-term study of coral cover on island groups of the Great Barrier Reef has found declines of between 40 and 50 percent of live, hard corals at inshore island groups during the past few decades.

Study shows how vital coral algae adapts to warming seas

Scientists at the University of Southampton have shown how a specific type of symbiotic algae, which lives in coral tissue, is able to adapt and survive the hotter seawater temperatures caused by global warming.

Warming impedes a coral defense, but hungry fish enhance it

Corals create potions that fight bacterial attackers, but warming appears to tip the scales against the potions as they battle a bacterium common in coral bleaching, according to a new study. Reef conservation may offer hope: ...

Super-corals adapt well to cold but struggle with warming oceans

Super-corals from extreme reefs can acclimatize to temperatures much lower than their natural environment but struggle to cope with their home reefs becoming hotter due to climate change, according to a global research team ...

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Bleach

Bleach refers to a number of chemicals that remove color, whiten, or disinfect, often via oxidation. Common chemical bleaches include household chlorine bleach (a solution of approximately 3–6% sodium hypochlorite, NaClO), lye, oxygen bleach (which contains either hydrogen peroxide or a peroxide-releasing compound), and bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite). The bleaching process was known to most ancient civilizations and has been around for thousands of years. Modern bleaches resulted from the work of 18th century scientists including Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, French scientists Claude Berthollet and Antoine Germain Labarraque, and Scottish chemist Charles Tennant. Household chlorine bleach is created in two ways: by separating sodium hypochlorite from sea water or brine using electrolysis, or by adding chlorine gas to sodium hydroxide which produces sodium hypochlorite, water and sodium chloride.

Many bleaches have strong bactericidal properties, and are used for disinfecting and sterilizing.

Examples of peroxide-releasing compounds are sodium perborate, sodium percarbonate, sodium persulfate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, or urea peroxide together with catalysts and activators, e.g., tetraacetylethylenediamine or sodium nonanoyloxybenzenesulfonate.

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