Warming impedes a coral defense, but hungry fish enhance it

Corals create potions that fight bacterial attackers, but warming appears to tip the scales against the potions as they battle a bacterium common in coral bleaching, according to a new study. Reef conservation may offer hope: ...

Super-corals adapt well to cold but struggle with warming oceans

Super-corals from extreme reefs can acclimatize to temperatures much lower than their natural environment but struggle to cope with their home reefs becoming hotter due to climate change, according to a global research team ...

Fussy fish can have their coral, and eat it too

Being a fussy eater is a problem for reef fish who seek refuge from climate change on deeper reefs. But, scientists discovered, the coral that these fussy fish eat can support them.

Changing how we predict coral bleaching

A remote sensing algorithm offers better predictions of Red Sea coral bleaching and can be fine tuned for use in other tropical marine ecosystems.

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Bleach

Bleach refers to a number of chemicals that remove color, whiten, or disinfect, often via oxidation. Common chemical bleaches include household chlorine bleach (a solution of approximately 3–6% sodium hypochlorite, NaClO), lye, oxygen bleach (which contains either hydrogen peroxide or a peroxide-releasing compound), and bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite). The bleaching process was known to most ancient civilizations and has been around for thousands of years. Modern bleaches resulted from the work of 18th century scientists including Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, French scientists Claude Berthollet and Antoine Germain Labarraque, and Scottish chemist Charles Tennant. Household chlorine bleach is created in two ways: by separating sodium hypochlorite from sea water or brine using electrolysis, or by adding chlorine gas to sodium hydroxide which produces sodium hypochlorite, water and sodium chloride.

Many bleaches have strong bactericidal properties, and are used for disinfecting and sterilizing.

Examples of peroxide-releasing compounds are sodium perborate, sodium percarbonate, sodium persulfate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, or urea peroxide together with catalysts and activators, e.g., tetraacetylethylenediamine or sodium nonanoyloxybenzenesulfonate.

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