Why fish don't freeze in the Arctic Ocean

German researchers have discovered how natural antifreeze works to protect fish in the icy waters of the Arctic Ocean from freezing to death. They were able to observe that an antifreeze protein in the fish's blood affects ...

Scientists isolate new antifreeze molecule in Alaska beetle

Scientists have identified a novel antifreeze molecule in a freeze-tolerant Alaska beetle able to survive temperatures below minus 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Unlike all previously described biological antifreezes that contain ...

We now know how insects and bacteria control ice

Contrary to what you may have been taught, water doesn't always freeze to ice at 32 degrees F (zero degrees C). Knowing, or controlling, at what temperature water will freeze (starting with a process called nucleation) is ...

Antifreeze proteins can stop ice melt, new study finds

The same antifreeze proteins that keep organisms from freezing in cold environments also can prevent ice from melting at warmer temperatures, according to a new Ohio University and Queen's University study published today ...

A close up look at how bacteria make ice

(Phys.org)—A combined team of researchers from Germany and the U.S. has taken a closer look at a type of bacteria that is able to cause ice to form, sometimes even under conditions above the normal freezing point.

Engineering self-assembling amyloid fibers

Nature has many examples of self-assembly, and bioengineers are interested in copying or manipulating these systems to create useful new materials or devices. Amyloid proteins, for example, can self-assemble into the tangled ...

Study of Arctic fishes reveals the birth of a gene—from 'junk'

Though separated by a world of ocean, and unrelated to each other, two fish groups—one in the Arctic, the other in the Antarctic—share a surprising survival strategy: They both have evolved the ability to produce the ...

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Antifreeze is a freeze preventive used in internal combustion engines and other heat transfer applications, such as HVAC chillers and solar water heaters.

The purpose of antifreeze is to prevent a rigid enclosure from undergoing catastrophic deformation due to expansion when water turns to ice. Antifreezes are chemical compounds added to water to reduce the freezing point of the mixture below the lowest temperature that the system is likely to encounter. Either the additive or the mixture may be referred to as antifreeze.

An antifreeze mixture achieves freezing point depression for a cold environment and also achieves boiling point elevation to enable higher liquid temperatures. This is described as the action of a colligative agent, which can properly be referred to as both antifreeze and "anti-boil" when used for both properties. Careful selection of an antifreeze can enable a wide temperature range in which the mixture remains in the liquid phase, which is critical to efficient heat transfer and the proper functioning of heat exchangers.

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