Geometry is key to T-cell triggering

T cells protect the body from foreign substances (known as antigens) and are an essential component of the body's immune system. New immunotherapies that use a patient's own T cells to treat disease have already proven strikingly ...

Bitcoin study shows value of exclusive access for early adopters

Giving early adopters the first access to new technologies can help diffuse those technologies among the masses. A notable example is Google's rollout of Gmail: In 2004, about 1,000 select users were given exclusive access ...

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Adoption

Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting for another and, in so doing, permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities from the original parent or parents. Unlike guardianship or other systems designed for the care of the young, adoption is intended to effect a permanent change in status and as such requires societal recognition, either through legal or religious sanction. Historically some societies have enacted specific laws governing adoption whereas others have endeavored to achieve adoption through less formal means, notably via contracts that specified inheritance rights and parental responsibilities. Modern systems of adoption, arising in the 20th century, tend to be governed by comprehensive statutes and regulations.

Adoption has a long history in the Western world, closely tied with the legacy of the Roman Empire and the Catholic Church. Its use has changed considerably over the centuries with its focus shifting from adult adoption and inheritance issues toward children and family creation and its structure moving from a recognition of continuity between the adopted and kin toward allowing relationships of lessened intensity.

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