Phys.org news tagged with:quantum numbers
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en-usPhys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.Predicting the properties of subatomic particles using large scale computer simulationsPredicting the properties of subatomic particles before their experimental discovery has been a big challenge for physicists. In a recent paper published on 28 July in Physical Review Letters Nilmani Mathur from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, and M. Padmanath, a former student from TIFR, have predicted the quantum numbers of five Ω0c baryons which have recently been discovered by an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (the LHCb collaboration) at CERN. These results will help in understanding the nature of strong interactions in the Universe.
https://phys.org/news/2017-07-properties-subatomic-particles-large-scale.html
General Physics Mon, 31 Jul 2017 10:40:03 EDTnews420713786Probability that the quantum world obeys local realism is less than one in a billion, experiment shows(Phys.org)—Physicists have reported some of the strongest evidence yet that that the quantum world does not obey local realism by demonstrating new evidence for the existence of quantum entanglement. By performing an essentially loophole-free Bell test, they have shown that two atoms separated by a distance of a quarter of a mile share correlations that should be impossible under the hypothesis of local realism, and are most likely explained by quantum entanglement.
https://phys.org/news/2017-07-probability-quantum-world-local-realism.html
Quantum Physics Thu, 20 Jul 2017 09:30:02 EDTnews419736693Random numbers—hard times ahead for hackersWhenever we need to communicate in secret, a cryptographic key is needed. For this key to work, it must consist of numbers chosen at random without any structure – just the opposite of using the birthdate of our favourite pet. But, for a human, it is extremely difficult to choose without creating any bias, even by hitting the keyboard chaotically. To solve this problem, researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, have developed a new random numbers generator based on the principles of quantum physics. This physical theory, full of phenomena that run counter to our common sense, shows that certain physical events occur perfectly at random, making them impossible to predict. Unlike previous methods, the new system allows the user to verify the reliability of the random numbers it generates in real time. This work, to appear in the scientific journal Physical Review Applied, will greatly complicate the tasks of hackers who can no longer exploit bias resulting from human fallibility or possible imperfections in existing devices.
https://phys.org/news/2017-05-random-numbershard-hackers.html
Quantum Physics Wed, 31 May 2017 08:22:12 EDTnews415437711Unpolarized single-photon generation with true randomness from diamondThe Tohoku University research group of Professor Keiichi Edamatsu and Postdoctoral fellow Naofumi Abe has demonstrated dynamically and statically unpolarized single-photon generation using diamond. This result is expected to play a crucial role in hardware random number generation using single photons (quantum dice or quantum coin toss), quantum cryptography and the testing of fundamental problems in quantum mechanics.
https://phys.org/news/2017-05-unpolarized-single-photon-true-randomness-diamond.html
Quantum Physics Mon, 08 May 2017 09:44:14 EDTnews413455442Physicists extend quantum machine learning to infinite dimensionsPhysicists have developed a quantum machine learning algorithm that can handle infinite dimensions—that is, it works with continuous variables (which have an infinite number of possible values on a closed interval) instead of the typically used discrete variables (which have only a finite number of values).
https://phys.org/news/2017-03-physicists-quantum-machine-infinite-dimensions.html
Quantum Physics Mon, 06 Mar 2017 05:00:01 EDTnews407987862Physicists address loophole in tests of Bell's inequality using 600-year-old starlightQuantum entanglement may appear to be closer to science fiction than anything in our physical reality. But according to the laws of quantum mechanics—a branch of physics that describes the world at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles—quantum entanglement, which Einstein once skeptically viewed as "spooky action at a distance," is, in fact, real.
https://phys.org/news/2017-02-physicists-loophole-bell-inequality-year-old.html
Quantum Physics Tue, 07 Feb 2017 07:27:31 EDTnews405674843Quantum physics offers new way to factor numbers(Phys.org)—Any number can, in theory, be written as the product of prime numbers. For small numbers, this is easy (for example, the prime factors of 12 are 2, 2, and 3), but for large numbers, prime factorization becomes extremely difficult—so difficult that many of today's cryptography algorithms rely on the complexity of the prime factorization of numbers with hundreds of digits to keep private information secure.
https://phys.org/news/2016-11-quantum-physics-factor.html
Quantum Physics Mon, 28 Nov 2016 09:30:02 EDTnews399524992New records set up with 'screws of light'University of Vienna research team has succeeded in breaking two novel records while experimenting with so-called twisted particles of light. These results, now published in the journal PNAS, are not only of fundamental interest but also give a hint towards the enormous information capacity a single particle of light may offer in future applications.
https://phys.org/news/2016-11-new-records-set-up-with.html
Quantum Physics Wed, 16 Nov 2016 10:28:42 EDTnews398514502World's fastest quantum simulator operating at the atomic levelKenji Ohmori (Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Japan) and a group of collaborators have developed the world's fastest simulator for the quantum mechanical dynamics of a large number of particles interacting with each other within one billionths of a second.
https://phys.org/news/2016-11-world-fastest-quantum-simulator-atomic.html
Quantum Physics Wed, 16 Nov 2016 06:31:12 EDTnews398500264Artificial atoms shed light on the future of securityFrom credit card numbers to bank account information, we transmit sensitive digital information over the internet every day. Since the 1990s, though, researchers have known that quantum computers threaten to disrupt the security of these transactions.
https://phys.org/news/2016-11-artificial-atoms-future.html
Quantum Physics Tue, 08 Nov 2016 08:47:04 EDTnews397817210New chip could bring highest level of encryption to any mobile deviceRandom number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device.
https://phys.org/news/2016-09-chip-highest-encryption-mobile-device.html
Quantum Physics Thu, 08 Sep 2016 10:25:31 EDTnews392549111Physicists discover family of tetraquarksPhysicists in the Syracuse University College of Arts and Sciences have made science history by confirming the existence of a rare four-quark particle and discovering evidence of three other "exotic" siblings.
https://phys.org/news/2016-07-physicists-family-tetraquarks.html
General Physics Fri, 08 Jul 2016 09:02:29 EDTnews387187335LHCb unveils new particlesOn 28 June, the LHCb collaboration reported the observation of three new "exotic" particles and the confirmation of the existence of a fourth one in data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These particles seem to be formed by four quarks (the fundamental constituent of the matter inside all the atoms of the universe): two quarks and two antiquarks (that is, a tetraquark). Due to their non-standard quark content, the newly observed particles have been included in the broad category of so-called exotic particles, although their exact theoretical interpretation is still under study.
https://phys.org/news/2016-07-lhcb-unveils-particles.html
General Physics Tue, 05 Jul 2016 08:56:02 EDTnews386927752Physicists discover an infinite number of quantum speed limits(Phys.org)—In order to determine how fast quantum technologies can ultimately operate, physicists have established the concept of "quantum speed limits." Quantum speed limits impose limitations on how fast a quantum system can transition from one state to another, so that such a transition requires a minimum amount of time (typically on the order of nanoseconds). This means, for example, that a future quantum computer will not be able to perform computations faster than a certain time determined by these limits.
https://phys.org/news/2016-06-physicists-infinite-quantum-limits.html
Quantum Physics Fri, 03 Jun 2016 09:30:01 EDTnews384148595The power of entanglement: A conversation with Fernando BrandaoComputers are a ubiquitous part of modern technology, utilized in smartphones, cars, kitchen appliances, and more. But there are limits to their power. New faculty member Fernando Brandão, the Bren Professor of Theoretical Physics, studies how quantum computers may someday revolutionize computing and change the world's cryptographic systems.
https://phys.org/news/2016-05-power-entanglement-conversation-fernando-brandao.html
Quantum Physics Mon, 23 May 2016 09:00:01 EDTnews383208720Best of Last Week—The Zeno effect, self-driving cars and the genetic impact of stress on offspring(Phys.org)—It was another banner week for physics as one team at Cornell verified the 'Zeno effect,' whereby atoms won't move while observed. They conducted experiments in an Ultracold Lab and found that atoms that normally would tunnel under a given circumstance, would not if they were watched. Also another international team of researchers found a way to experimentally realize a quantum Hilbert hotel—they made two proposals, one theoretical the other experimental, both of which were based on an infinite number of quantum states.
https://phys.org/news/2015-10-weekthe-zeno-effect-self-driving-cars.html
Other Mon, 26 Oct 2015 08:53:49 EDTnews365068417Physicists experimentally realize a quantum Hilbert hotel(Phys.org)—In 1924, the mathematician David Hilbert described a hotel with an infinite number of rooms that are all occupied. Demonstrating the counterintuitive nature of infinity, he showed that the hotel could still accommodate additional guests. Although clearly no such brick-and-mortar hotel exists, in a new paper published in Physical Review Letters, physicists Václav Potoček, et al., have physically realized a quantum Hilbert hotel by using a beam of light.
https://phys.org/news/2015-10-physicists-experimentally-quantum-hilbert-hotel.html
Quantum Physics Wed, 21 Oct 2015 09:30:02 EDTnews364617764The theory of parallel universes is not just maths – it is science that can be testedThe existence of parallel universes may seem like something cooked up by science fiction writers, with little relevance to modern theoretical physics. But the idea that we live in a "multiverse" made up of an infinite number of parallel universes has long been considered a scientific possibility – although it is still a matter of vigorous debate among physicists. The race is now on to find a way to test the theory, including searching the sky for signs of collisions with other universes.
https://phys.org/news/2015-09-theory-parallel-universes-maths-science.html
General Physics Thu, 03 Sep 2015 07:10:03 EDTnews360482425Channeling valleytronics in graphene: Researchers discover 1-D conducting channels in bilayer grapheneTo the list of potential applications of graphene – a two-dimensional semiconductor of pure carbon that is stronger and much faster than silicon – we can now add valleytronics, the coding of data in the wavelike motion of electrons as they speed through a conductor. Berkeley Lab researchers have discovered topologically protected one-dimensional electron conducting channels at the domain walls of bilayer graphene. These conducting channels are "valley polarized," which means they can serve as filters for electron valley polarization in future devices such as quantum computers.
https://phys.org/news/2015-05-channeling-valleytronics-graphene.html
Nanomaterials Tue, 05 May 2015 07:03:34 EDTnews350028126Quantum random number generator combines best of two approaches(Phys.org)—Science is a discipline that often seeks order and patterns in the world around us, but randomness also has its uses. Random numbers are a vital tool for areas such as cryptography, computer simulations, and statistical analysis. Generating long strings of truly random numbers is surprisingly difficult, yet necessary for achieving good performance and high security in these applications.
https://phys.org/news/2015-04-quantum-random-combines-approaches.html
Quantum Physics Wed, 29 Apr 2015 09:30:02 EDTnews349494934New pathway to valleytronicsA potential avenue to quantum computing currently generating quite the buzz in the high-tech industry is "valleytronics," in which information is coded based on the wavelike motion of electrons moving through certain two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors. Now, a promising new pathway to valleytronic technology has been uncovered by researchers with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab).
https://phys.org/news/2015-01-pathway-valleytronics.html
General Physics Tue, 27 Jan 2015 08:20:01 EDTnews341567702Xinwen Zhu discusses the unifying theory of mathematicsIn 1994, British mathematician Andrew Wiles successfully developed a proof for Fermat's last theorem—a proof that was once partially scribbled in a book margin by 17th-century mathematician Pierre de Fermat but subsequently eluded even the best minds for more than 300 years. Wiles's hard-won success came after digging into a vast web of mathematical conjectures called the Langlands program. The Langlands program, proposed by Canadian mathematician Robert Phelan Langlands in the 1960s, acts as a bridge between seemingly unrelated disciplines in mathematics, such as number theory—the study of prime numbers and other integers—and more visual disciplines such as geometry.
https://phys.org/news/2014-12-xinwen-zhu-discusses-theory-mathematics.html
Mathematics Mon, 08 Dec 2014 08:50:01 EDTnews337249310New largest number factored on a quantum device is 56,153(Phys.org)—Researchers have set a new record for the quantum factorization of the largest number to date, 56,153, smashing the previous record of 143 that was set in 2012. They have shown that the exact same room-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment used to factor 143 can actually factor an entire class of numbers, although this was not known until now. Because this computation, which is based on a minimization algorithm involving 4 qubits, does not require prior knowledge of the answer, it outperforms all implementations of Shor's algorithm to date, which do require prior knowledge of the answer. Expanding on this method, the researchers also theoretically show how the same minimization algorithm can be used to factor even larger numbers, such as 291,311, with only 6 qubits.
https://phys.org/news/2014-11-largest-factored-quantum-device.html
Quantum Physics Fri, 28 Nov 2014 12:31:23 EDTnews336400271Golden Ratio offers unity of scienceIt is said to represent a "cosmic constant" found in the curvature of elephant tusks, the shape of a kudu's horn, the destructive beauty of Hurricane Katrina, and in the astronomical grandeur of how planets, moons, asteroids and rings are distributed in the solar system, to name but a few.
https://phys.org/news/2014-11-golden-ratio-unity-science.html
Mathematics Thu, 27 Nov 2014 08:30:01 EDTnews336297930Quantum key distribution technology: Secure computing for the 'Everyman'The largest information technology agreement ever signed by Los Alamos National Laboratory brings the potential for truly secure data encryption to the marketplace after nearly 20 years of development at the nation's premier national-security science laboratory.
https://phys.org/news/2014-09-quantum-key-technology-everyman.html
Quantum Physics Wed, 03 Sep 2014 09:20:03 EDTnews328953692The quest for true randomness and uncrackable codesQuantum cryptography is said to be uncrackable. It will stay safe, but only if true randomness, the generation and use of intrinsically random numbers, can be achieved.
https://phys.org/news/2014-05-quest-true-randomness-uncrackable-codes.html
Quantum Physics Thu, 22 May 2014 08:20:02 EDTnews319963733Experiment opens the door to multi-party quantum communication (Update)In the world of quantum science, Alice and Bob have been talking to one another for years. Charlie joined the conversation a few years ago, but now by enforcing the space-like separation of the three parties, scientists have demonstrated full quantum nonlocality with more than two entangled photons.
https://phys.org/news/2014-03-door-multi-party-quantum.html
Quantum Physics Mon, 24 Mar 2014 11:07:54 EDTnews314878059New physics in a copper-iridium compound(Phys.org) —An unexpected magnetic behavior within Sr3CuIrO6, a transition-metal compound (TMC) that combines the transition metal copper with the transition metal iridium has been revealed by research at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science's Advanced Photon Source (APS). These results indicate that mixing certain transition metal systems can yield TMCs with surprising physical properties unattainable with these systems alone, and may eventually lead to new materials for applications such as electronic memory devices and quantum computation.
https://phys.org/news/2013-08-physics-copper-iridium-compound.html
Condensed Matter Thu, 08 Aug 2013 09:52:37 EDTnews295174345"Valleytronics" – a new type of electronics in diamond(Phys.org) —An alternative and novel concept in electronics is to utilize the wave quantum number of the electron in a crystalline material to encode information. In a new article in Nature Materials, Isberg et.al. propose using this valley degree of freedom in diamond to enable valleytronic information processing or as a new route to quantum computing.
https://phys.org/news/2013-07-valleytronics-electronics-diamond.html
Quantum Physics Mon, 22 Jul 2013 07:50:27 EDTnews293698198Exhibit highlights advances in quantum communication and computingResearchers from the Cambridge Research Laboratory of Toshiba Research Europe Limited and the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge will today present the world's most secure chat and video conferencing network at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition in London. It uses quantum physics to automatically detect tapping of the network and alert users of any potential threat.
https://phys.org/news/2013-07-highlights-advances-quantum.html
Quantum Physics Wed, 03 Jul 2013 09:10:05 EDTnews292060149