This article has been reviewed according to Science X's editorial process and policies. Editors have highlighted the following attributes while ensuring the content's credibility:


peer-reviewed publication

trusted source


Carbon emissions found to cost the world's economies 4 times as much as they did 10 years ago

Carbon emissions cost the world's economies four times as much as they did 10 years ago—new research
Credit: Peggychoucair from Pixabay

Every ton of carbon is four times more damaging to the world now than it was 10 years ago, according to a recently published study from the University of Sussex Business School.

The findings, published in Nature Climate Change, are based on an extensive analysis spanning four decades of research.

The "social cost of carbon" is the cost that economies face from the release of carbon into the atmosphere. The cost can be calculated by carbon's effect on: and welfare, , sea level rise leading to property damage and destruction, desertification, changes in , and declines in labor productivity.

The research, which analyzed over 5,900 estimates from 207 papers published before 2022, used innovative statistical methods such as meta-analysis, and found that, whereas twenty years ago economists tended to advocate a modest carbon tax, they now need to argue for a much more stringent climate policy. This is primarily because the assessment of climate change and its impacts have become much more pessimistic over time.

Professor Richard Tol, professor of economics at the University of Sussex Business School, said, "The implications of these findings for climate policy, are significant. The central estimate is that the social cost of carbon becomes 2.2% larger every year. We have found that every ton of carbon is four times as damaging now as it was 10 years ago.

"The study underscores the need to intensify efforts to reduce and reassess the appropriate carbon price.

"There is often a gap between the announced emissions targets and the policies supposed to achieve the targets. Besides raising the social cost of carbon, the recommended carbon price, policy makers should focus on raising the actual price of carbon.

"Therefore, this paper justifies a major strengthening of than the one that we have in Europe and North America, and calls for other countries, particularly China and India to up their climate game."

There are, as the researchers point out, a number of different of the social cost of carbon, and these vary because of different assumptions about future emissions. However, on average, these predictions have become much more pessimistic as the reality of climate change sets in. For example, climate impacts are unpredictable, and the impacts of moving from 1.5°C to 2°C are much greater than an increase from 0.5°C to 1°C. This has, as the study suggests, increased the cost of carbon significantly as the impact on everything from agriculture to health, sets in.

More information: Richard S. J. Tol, Social cost of carbon estimates have increased over time, Nature Climate Change (2023). DOI: 10.1038/s41558-023-01680-x

Journal information: Nature Climate Change

Citation: Carbon emissions found to cost the world's economies 4 times as much as they did 10 years ago (2023, August 24) retrieved 14 July 2024 from
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Explore further

Carbon pricing disproportionately harms the elderly: Study


Feedback to editors