This article has been reviewed according to Science X's editorial process and policies. Editors have highlighted the following attributes while ensuring the content's credibility:


peer-reviewed publication

trusted source


Pollination of macadamia plantations can be enhanced by improving plantation design

Plantation design features to increase pollination
Left: Honeybee collects nectar on the flowers. Right: Mina Anders counts the pollinators on the flowers. Credit: Mina Anders

A new collaborative study from the Universities of Gottingen, Hohenheim and Venda in Germany and South Africa, explores how improving plantation design can enhance pollination on macadamia plantations.

The reduction of biodiversity loss in calls for an increase in sustainable and environmentally friendly agricultural practices. A collaborative research team from the universities of Gottingen, Hohenheim (both of which are located in Germany) and Venda (South Africa), investigated how such as pollination could be improved in a macadamia plantation.

The results of the study, published in the Journal of Applied Ecology showed that a certain scheme of planting can increase the pollination performance of bees. Some of the studied include the arrangement of trees, varieties of trees and the integration of semi-natural habitats in and around the plantation.

Professor Ingo Grass (University of Hohenheim) stated, "Insect pollination of macadamia flowers is essential for production. A complete loss of pollinators would reduce the amount of nuts by 75%." To find out which encourage pollinators, the team observed and counted the bees and other insects present on the macadamia flowers.

  • Plantation design features to increase pollination
    A macadamia plantation in South Africa. Credit: Mina Anders
  • Plantation design features to increase pollination
    The unripe nuts hang in bunches on trees. Credit: Mina Anders

Mina Anders (University of Gottingen) explained, "The main factor is how large the proportion of semi-natural habitats is in the vicinity of the plantation, since that's where majority of the pollinators fly in from." 80% more nuts grew at the edge of the plantation, land that borders semi-natural habitats more compared to the middle of the plantation.

Directly after flowering, the nut formation increased more than threefold in tree rows planted at right angles to semi-natural habitats, compared to rows planted parallel to them. Pollinators prefer to fly along the tree rows rather than through them, so they are able to move more easily from their habitat to the plantation when rows are placed perpendicular.

Given the urgency to reduce the harmful environmental impacts of agricultural practices, the study emphasizes the potential of supporting ecology through intelligent design and the restoration of semi-natural habitats in plantations and the surrounding landscape.

More information: Mina Anders et al, Smart orchard design improves crop pollination, Journal of Applied Ecology (2023). DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.14363

Journal information: Journal of Applied Ecology

Citation: Pollination of macadamia plantations can be enhanced by improving plantation design (2023, February 21) retrieved 23 July 2024 from
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Explore further

Bean cultivation in diverse agricultural landscapes promotes bees and increases yields


Feedback to editors