Pseudoscience is taking over social media – and putting us all at risk

social media
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

Search for "climate change" on YouTube and before long you'll likely find a video that denies it exists. In fact, when it comes to shaping the online conversation around climate change, a new study suggests that deniers and conspiracy theorists might hold an edge over those believing in science. Researchers found evidence that most YouTube videos relating to climate change oppose the scientific consensus that it's primarily caused by human activities.

The study highlights the key role of social media use in the spread of scientific misinformation. And it suggests scientists and those who support them need to be more active in developing creative and compelling ways to communicate their findings. But more importantly, we need to be worried about the effects that maliciously manipulated scientific information can have on our behaviour, individually and as a society.

The recent study by Joachim Allgaier of RWTH Aachen University in Germany analysed the content of a randomised sample of 200 YouTube videos related to change. He found that a majority (107) of the videos either denied that climate change was caused by humans or claimed that climate change was a conspiracy.

The videos peddling the conspiracy theories received the highest number of views. And those spreading these conspiracy theories used terms like "geoengineering" to make it seem like their claims had a scientific basis when, in fact, they did not.

Health misinformation

Climate change is far from the only area where we see a trend for online misinformation about science triumphing over scientifically valid facts. Take an issue like infectious diseases, and perhaps the most well-known example of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Despite large amounts of online information about the vaccine's safety, false claims that it has have spread widely and resulted in plummeting levels of vaccination in many countries around the world.

But it's not just well-known conspiracy theories that are causing a problem. In May 2018, one troublemaker came into his own at the height of the Nipah virus outbreak that eventually claimed 17 lives in the southern Indian state of Kerala. He duplicated the letterhead of the District Medical Officer and spread a message claiming that Nipah was spreading through chicken meat.

In reality, the scientifically established view is that the fruit bat is the host for the virus. As the unfounded rumour went viral on WhatsApp in Kerala and neighbouring states like Tamil Nadu, consumers became wary of consuming chicken, which sent the incomes of local chicken traders into a tailspin.

The effects of misinformation surrounding the MMR vaccine and Nipah virus on human behaviour should not be surprising given we know that our memory is malleable. Our recollection of original facts can be replaced with new, false ones. We also know conspiracy theories have a powerful appeal as they can help people make sense of events or issues they feel they have no control over.

This problem is complicated further by the personalisation algorithms underlying social media. These tend to feed us content consistent with our beliefs and clicking patterns, helping to strengthen the acceptance of misinformation. Someone who is sceptical about climate change might be given an increasing stream of content denying it is caused by humans, making them less likely to take personal action or vote to tackle the issue.

Further rapid advances in digital technologies will also ensure that misinformation arrives in unexpected formats and with varying levels of sophistication. Duplicating an official's letterhead or strategically using key words to manipulate online search engines is the tip of the iceberg. The emergence of artificial intelligence-related developments such as DeepFakes – highly realistic doctored videos—is likely to make it a lot harder to spot misinformation.

So how do we tackle this problem? The challenge is made greater by the fact that simply providing corrective scientific information can reinforce people's awareness of the falsehoods. We also have to overcome resistance from people's ideological beliefs and biases.

Social media companies are trying to developing institutional mechanisms to contain the spread of misinformation. Responding to the new research, a YouTube spokesperson said: "Since this study was conducted in 2018, we've made hundreds of changes to our platform and the results of this study do not accurately reflect the way that YouTube works today … These changes have already reduced views from recommendations of this type of content by 50% in the US."

Other companies have recruited fact checkers in large numbers, awarded research grants to study misinformation to academics (including myself), and search terms for topics where misinformation could have harmful health effects have been blocked.

But the continuing prominence of scientific on social media suggests these measures are not enough. As a result, governments around the world are taking action, ranging from passing legislation to internet shutdowns, much to the ire of freedom-of-speech activists.

Scientists need to get involved

Another possible solution may be to hone people's ability to think critically so they can tell the difference between actual and . For example, a district in Kerala has launched a data literacy initiative across nearly 150 public schools trying to empower children with the skills to differentiate between authentic and fake information. It's early days but there is already anecdotal evidence that this can make a difference.

Scientists also need to get more involved in the fight to make sure their work isn't dismissed or misused, as in the case of terms like "geoengineering" being hijacked by YouTube climate deniers. Conspiracy theories ride on the appeal of certainties—however fake—whereas uncertainty is inherent to the scientific process. But in the case of the on , which sees up to 99% of climate scientists agreeing that humans are responsible, we have something as close to certainty as science comes.

Scientists need to leverage this agreement to its maximum and communicate to the public using innovative and persuasive strategies. This includes creating social media content of their own to not only shift beliefs but also influence behaviours. Otherwise, their voices, however highly trusted, will continue to be drowned out by the frequency and ferocity of content produced by those with no concrete evidence.


Explore further

The geoengineering of consent: How conspiracists dominate YouTube climate science content

Provided by The Conversation

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.The Conversation

Citation: Pseudoscience is taking over social media – and putting us all at risk (2019, August 2) retrieved 23 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-08-pseudoscience-social-media.html
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
209 shares

Feedback to editors

User comments

mqr
Aug 02, 2019
Scientists act as if they hold the truth, as if they are not sensitive to bias and manipulation by institutions like big pharma, big sugar, big alcohol, the republican party, etc. That is why people doubt their claims, because we all know that scientists are people and in the recent past they received money from companies and political parties to lie for them.

As with vaccines. I used to work with children with autism long long ago, before the internet was so ubiquitous. And when I talked to parents about how autism started, it was always the classic: "we took him for his shots on the morning, and he got sick in the afternoon, and the next day he was pretty much "gone"". If anyone knows a person with autism, then you understand the ultra heavy burden for a person and his/her family. It is ABSURD that anyone tells a mother "let's trust me, I am scientist, so let me put shots in your child, it will be ok". Really? scientists, the ones that made nuclear weapons, pesticides, nerve agents?

Aug 02, 2019
And it suggests scientists and those who support them need to be more active in developing creative and compelling ways to communicate their findings.

The problem I have with this above suggestion is that I don't see how it is possible for scientists to make "creative and compelling ways to communicate their findings" to convince the stupid without lowering themselves into communicate their findings by dumbing down the explinations to the point where they would be unscientific. If a layperson is so stupid as not to trust the findings of the scientists and only believe whatever they want to be true then it would probably be futile to try to convince him he is wrong and science is right.

Aug 02, 2019
Scientists act as if they hold the truth,
mqr

That's because they usually are. Sometimes they get it wrong, but, if they are merely stating a scientific fact, then they are right. Do you deny this?


Aug 02, 2019
As with vaccines. I used to work with children with autism long long ago, before the internet was so ubiquitous. And when I talked to parents about how autism started, it was always the classic: "we took him for his shots on the morning, and he got sick in the afternoon, and the next day he was pretty much "gone"". If anyone knows a person with autism, then you understand the ultra heavy burden for a person and his/her family.
It is ABSURD that anyone tells a mother "let's trust me, I am scientist, so let me put shots in your child, it will be ok".

https://www.autis...3z_D_BwE
"...
The evidence:

Much research has been devoted to this issue and the results have repeatedly shown there is no link. This includes a comprehensive review of all available studies on links between autism and vaccines in 2014, using data from more than 1.25 million children.


Aug 02, 2019
Really? scientists, the ones that made nuclear weapons, pesticides, nerve agents?
mqr

Scientists also made medical cures and vaccines that have saved countless lives and created all sorts of new technology that have made all our lives, including yours, tend to be longer and better.
Without that and/or that sort of scientific-like thinking, we would still be in the stone age.
Why would whatever the scientists say are the scientific facts be wrong or untrustworthy just because some of them (and only a minority of them in this case) did something bad or immoral that just happened to involve scientific knowledge in some way?

Aug 02, 2019
The best lie is one you already want to believe. humans have been making a business of selling such lies in the guise of religion and propaganda since the beginning of time.
faith is stronger than the truth. it always wins. you can no more educate the masses to think critically than convince them to question or abandon their faith.
even something as simple as false gossip will never go away even once refuted.
best we can do is expose people to the actual truth as early and as often as possible.

Aug 02, 2019
so how do you heat a warm body with a cold one ?

Aug 02, 2019
What is "pseudoscience"?
In the past, everything on the earth that the ancients saw might be thrown or rolled or slid, but they always came to a stop. On the "scientific" basis of observation, they established the principle that every inanimate thing on the earth always stops moving eventually. This, in fact, and not necessarily hubris, was an "explanation" for the earth being at the center of the universe. If all things seen on earth eventually stop, earthly matter in the universe must have stopped and fallen to one spot, the center of the universe. Planets were made of other substance. In fact, Galileo said wet ice on wet ice will slip very far, but it also stops. But he posited, without proof, that, if matter is not acted on, it will continue to move forever. It can be said Galileo engaged in "pseudoscience"!

Aug 02, 2019
Flat-Eartherism needs to be recognized as a dangerous psychiatric disease and its sufferers need to be quietly taken aside and treated, their posts moderated away like any other abusive, harmful, or fraudulent content.

Aug 02, 2019
Another steaming load of AGW Cult bullshit.
Gobble up, Chicken Littles.

Aug 02, 2019
Gee, but no one does that here, do they? /s

We got a chemtrailer, two anti-vaxxers, a flat earther, and two climate liar deniers on this very thread, illustrating the problem.

Meanwhile, @Beethoven, all we can do is try to teach them to think instead of emote. That has to be done when they're young, and it's frustrating. So only the best can do it. It's a long hard road. But it's the only way. If we don't get smarter we're going extinct from our own garbage.

Aug 02, 2019
I'm going to put a name on this: chickenshit. It means the stuff they spew when they start getting pwnt. It's a shame there are stupid people. But they need to Get Over It. Using insults and tactics you learned on the Intertubes to try to deny and lie about science is infantile. Be big enough to admit you don't know everything or you're the problem, not the solution.

Aug 03, 2019
Da Convo knows pseudo-science when it is seen! Eschew 'social', be exceptional.

Aug 03, 2019
Pseudoscience is taking over social media – and putting us all at risk

Pseudoscience has taken over aspects of science, of course it has taken over social media as they attempt to spread the word of their pseudoscientific mantra. And the real risk is from bad science being spread by the ignorant acolytes that believe anything the me n in white coats tell them.

Aug 03, 2019
@cantthink69 hates teh evul siensetis.



Aug 04, 2019
@cantthink69 hates teh evul siensetis.

Point to one "threat" to humanity or ecology that hasn't been caused or complicated by egotistical, naive, idealistic, scientists. Problem with most scientists is they may be good at rote memorization and maths equations but they are extremely deficient of real intelligence and wisdom. As a matter of fact, individuals who have intelligence and wisdom have been actively removed from academia for decades now, especially in the theoretical branches of science such a climate and astrophysics.

Aug 04, 2019
I would think these social media troll spammers would be embarrassed to post on this thread.

Totally blind to it, apparently. They have no sense of pride or shame, other than false pride because they beeeeeeeeeeeeeLIEeeeeeeeve.

Aug 04, 2019
Godder asks
What is "pseudoscience"?
-How about this?

"Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. And on the seventh day God finished his work which he had done, and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had done..." (Gen. 2:1-2)

-In the beginning god made pseudoscience and saw that it was good for keeping people stupid and quiet on pain of death and eternal damnation.

Aug 04, 2019
The author of the article is, presumably, from southern India, which is a hot country in general - except for the mountainous regions in the North. So that, in general, the population of India are already used to hot temperatures and would complain endlessly if the climate of India suddenly turned very cold overnight. All this means is that humans are rarely ever happy under their circumstances, whatever that may be.
The only REAL projected problem that Indians have is that there sources of fresh water may eventually run dry if there isn't enough snow and ice in the higher elevations.
This is not only endemic to India, but is something that is happening almost world-wide. Scientists cannot explain it, so they blame it on "human-caused" global warming or climate change. The latter has been a source of amusement to many, since it IS true that "climate" is ALWAYS CHANGING, depending on weather patterns and how long those patterns remain.
But "HEAT DEATH" is a good method of...
-contd-

Aug 04, 2019
-contd-
But "HEAT DEATH" is a good method of eliminating those 'things' of a planet that haven't been beneficial for that particular planet.
Humankind has proven that it is not beneficial for the planet Earth as the benevolent stewards who were given the task of planting, reaping, and keeping the Earth and all that is on it in pristine and healthy condition. Instead, it is the humans who have taken and given back but little, while patting each other on the back as if they had done well. The truth is that humans ONLY do well for themselves, while they play the 'victim' when the situations are not to their liking.

The first attempt at elimination of the pestilence that walks the Earth was the Great Flood, which was not extensive enough to completely cover the Earth.
But 'HEAT DEATH' will cover the whole Earth, and the follies and the stupidity of humans will be the cause of their demise. It is spoken of in the Heavens, and it will come to pass on the Earth.

Aug 04, 2019
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6MmB7_e7ftY

Here's basically the last couple years condensed down to a couple minutes: https://www.youtu...b6uxg908

If people only realized how much propaganda and gaslighting is messing with the chemical neurophysiology of their brains, and consequently their collective standard of living, it's the death-by-a-thousand-cuts analog of "using chemicals on your own people," insidious, despicable, torturous, worse than what they accused Assad et al. of ...

Aug 04, 2019
the republican party, etc.


Perhaps you can explain to us why in your FIRST sentence you just did the same manipulation of facts?
You make it sound like you HATE the lies and conspiracies while penetrating you own. If you were objective and unbiased you would realize ALL political parties try to manipulate the truth, like you just did.

Aug 05, 2019
Yeah, but it's the right wingnuts who go out and mass-shoot people at malls and festivals, and the Reprehensible enablers who won't pass any laws to stop it.

Now what? Four mass shootings this week. Three mass shootings in the last year promoted on 8chan, which has lost its DDoS protection today and likely will lose its Internet presence soon. And which is, gee guess what, social media.

It ain't just about pseudo-science. It's about mass shootings and violence. And the ammosexuals keep doing this stuff. Isn't it about time we reined this in a bit?

Aug 05, 2019
the Reprehensible enablers who won't pass any laws to stop it.


You are such a stupid idiot filled with hate you cant even realize there are laws to stop it and have been for hundreds of years in most countries. Murder is illegal!
Wait, all you will do is twist the truth and reality of that statement to fit your twisted beliefs.
Let me guess that law is to confusing so we should make other laws to stop murder, I am sure that will work, right nut job?

Aug 05, 2019
https://www.youtu...a_G1h3pw

1981. Red Rider. They really nailed it. Too bad nobody listens to it any more.

Aug 05, 2019
Moscow Mitch just deep-sixed the bill to make national background checks a requirement for selling firearms. Now he's hiding and pretending he "broke his shoulder" because he doesn't want to tell everybody after four mass shootings in a week that he's against control, and doesn't want to meet his constituents and have to listen to them calling him "Moscow Mitch." Fucking coward piece of shit.

So basically you want to give everyone guns and then arrest them when they shoot people. It's kind of like taking someone to the hospital after they're dead. Stupid.

So you just lied again. Pull the other one, @rdickus.

Aug 05, 2019
Four mass shootings in a week, @rdickus. Looks to me like you're the one with the hate. And you want to keep on spreading it. You wanna go shoot some Mexicans or Mestizos or black people or something? Is that why you're all about guns and stuff, and claiming there's laws against it when there aren't? Go hide on 8chan; they probably won't have a DNS entry any more pretty quick, so you better write down the IP address... and pretty quick that will be changing.

Aug 05, 2019
The US took down the gangsters in the 1930s. Looks like it's time to take down the white racist supremacists since they keep shooting people they don't even know.

Thanks for being big enough assholes that we're going to wind up with a surveillance society. /s

And BTW, I am proud to hate white racist supremacist assholes and ammosexuals who enable mass shooters. And I will never stop.

Aug 05, 2019
The US took down the gangsters in the 1930s. Looks like it's time to take down the white racist supremacists since they keep shooting people they don't even know
Da scheide the frothing tribalist doesn't really care about a solution. He just uses tragedies like this to blame people he doesn't know, ie gun owning conservatives.

THE PROBLEM dear scheide is people who lack empathy. No one with normal human empathy for others could walk into a mall and shoot random men, women, and children.

There are 2 kinds of people who lack empathy. One is the rabid tribalist such as yourself. Such as the Mumbai massacreists, the 2017 congressional baseball game shooter, or the typical antifeh thug.
Cont>

Aug 05, 2019
I can't see any reason to read or respond to the thuggish ammosexual @BlottoTheBigot. Go post on 8chan, where your ilk hide out.

What do you need, a mass shooting every day? Two a day?

What's the matter with you? You sound like psycho trying to hold onto the tools to kill people,

The hate is strong in @Blotto.

Aug 05, 2019
The other is the psychopath. Psychopaths have a very real mental deficit, not unlike autism. It leaves them with an inability to feel emotion. Psychopaths are the people most often involved in these mass murders. Without guns they will only resort to using fire or a vehicle or poison.

If rabid tribalists like yourself could let go of your bigotry for a moment and focus on the real problems of tribalism and psychopathy in society then real solutions could be found.

"The high incidence of psychopathy in human society has a profound effect on the rest of us who must live on this planet, too, even those of us who have not been clinically traumatized. The individuals who constitute this 4 percent drain our relationships, our bank accounts, our accomplishments, our self-esteem, our very peace on earth."
Cont>

Aug 05, 2019
Here's how we do it:

The FBI spreads out and finds the nutjobs first, then everyone else who has a gun.

We take ballistic matches for every gun. We get names and fingerprints and DNA. We put them in a database.

The gun owners pay a registration fee to finance the record-keeping.

If someone gets shot, we get the ballistics and search the database.

Simple as that.

Aug 05, 2019
Psychopathy is not treatable. People are born with the condition. But it is diagnosable. Reliable tests need to be developed. Psychopaths need to be identified early on and monitored their entire lives for any signs of the tendency toward violence or victimization.

This would not be an easy task as psychopaths often attain positions of power and influence. As politicians, doctors, lawyers, and clergy they tend to be the very people who could prevent the sort of screening necessary to identify them.

But mass tragedy will not stop until this problem is addressed and a solution is found. The average citizen NEEDS firearms to protect themselves and their families from psychopaths and tribalists such as gang bangers, theft rings, and religious/political fanatics.

Of course psychopaths and tribalists WANT to disarm their victims which is why they are using every tragedy such as these mass shootings to try to do so.

Deal with the disease not the symptoms.

Aug 05, 2019
Here's how we do it:
Da scheide the rabid tribalist speaks for all who want to disarm their victims, but he doesnt realize it. As any tribalist or psychopath will tell you, registration leads to confiscation, which is the real intent. And EVERYWHERE registration has been enacted, confiscation has followed.

Aug 05, 2019
Well, if it's not the almost uncontrolled gun ownership that causes mass shootings, the correlation must come from that owning a gun makes you mentally ill.

Aug 05, 2019
"TOKYO (Reuters) - A man shouted "die" as he doused an animation studio with fuel and set it ablaze in Japan on Thursday, public broadcaster NHK said, killing at least 33 people in the nation's worst mass murder in nearly two decades."

"At least 27 people are dead after a group of uniformed men with knives attacked the Kunming train station in southwestern China on Saturday."

"Minassian remains in custody and Toronto is determined to carry on in the face of one of the worst mass killings in Canadian history. As for vehicular attacks, "I think we'll see a lot more of this," said Amarasingam."

"The leader of a cult in Japan whose followers released deadly gas in the Tokyo subway in 1995, killing 13 people and injuring thousands, was executed Friday."

-Gun control is pseudoscience.

Tribalism. Psychopathy. The true enemies. Address THEM or nothing will change and the carnage will continue.

Aug 05, 2019
So maybe the root problem is economic inequality?

Aug 05, 2019
That, and fascist psychopaths running the show ...

Aug 05, 2019
So maybe the root problem is economic inequality?
Overpopulation is the cause of economic inequality. Overpopulation is also the cause of tribalism. So to reduce both, reduce the growth rate.

See? We're getting somewhere. But we're still left with psychopathy.

"What differentiates a [psycho]path who lives off the labors of others from one who occasionally robs convenience stores, or from one who is a contemporary robber baron - or what makes the difference betwen an ordinary bully and a sociopathic murderer - is nothing more than social status, drive, intellect, blood lust, or simple opportunity.

"What distinguishes all of these people from the rest of us is an utterly empty hole in the psyche, where there should be the most evolved of all humanizing functions. [Martha Stout, Ph.D., The Sociopath Next Door]"

Aug 05, 2019
BTW

SHOOTER WAS APPARENTLY A LIBERAL

"Mike Cernovich
@Cernovich
The account identified by
@HeavySan
as belonging to the Dayton Ohio shooter has been suspended by Twitter.

It appears their reporting is confirmed.

This revelation will send shock waves through far left wing media and activist groups once our report is filed."

"Replying to
@Cernovich
and
@HeavySan
He supported Warren, claimed to be a leftist, shot his sister &her friend. Retweeted some Antifa bullshit. Supported common sense gun legislation. Was disturbed by the Parkland shooting. Schoolmate said he liked to scare people."

Aug 05, 2019
It's not possible to make sense out of crazy. Three basic foods (stimuli), food for the body, food for the mind, and food for the spirit. Feeding people pseudoscience and propaganda produces crazy events like these. When a person doesn't know the difference between left and right in the first place, it no longer matters how they describe themselves to others.

That, and fascist psychopaths running the show ...
"Benito Mussolini created the word 'fascism.' He defined it as 'the merging of the state and the corporation.' He also said a more accurate word would be 'corporatism.' This was the definition in Webster's up until 1987 when a corporation bought Webster's and changed it to exclude any mention of corporations." -- Adam Mckay

Looking for the root problem? Follow the money

Aug 05, 2019
Flat-Eartherism needs to be recognized as a dangerous psychiatric disease and its sufferers need to be quietly taken aside and treated, their posts moderated away like any other abusive, harmful, or fraudulent content.


I think it should go much farther than that. We need to purge the mental disease we call conspiracy theorists from civilization.

Aug 05, 2019
Quote Da Schneib
"Moscow Mitch." Fucking coward piece of shit.

So says the woman and coward that hides behind anonymity.
On top of that after checking wikipedia there are no politicians named "Moscow Mitch." She made the name up like cowardly bullies often do.

Aug 05, 2019
We need to purge the mental disease we call conspiracy theorists from civilization
Keep it up, they've already uncovered the whole bay of pigs thing.

Aug 05, 2019
We need to purge the mental disease we call conspiracy theorists from civilization
Keep it up, they've already uncovered the whole bay of pigs thing.


What about the bay of pigs?
We pay our politicians and military and CIA good money but they are human and make mistakes to. If it hurts our country why does making a mistake public help us? Our leaders and government learns from its mistakes whether they are made public or not.

Aug 05, 2019
We need to purge the mental disease we call conspiracy theorists from civilization
Keep it up, they've already uncovered the whole bay of pigs thing.


What about the bay of pigs?
We pay our politicians and military and CIA good money but they are human and make mistakes to. If it hurts our country why does making a mistake public help us? Our leaders and government learns from its mistakes whether they are made public or not.

Question being, how do they use the lesson learned? For us or against us?

Aug 05, 2019
Question being, how do they use the lesson learned? For us or against us?
These days, everyone works for the CIA by virtue of generating intel, but not everyone is on the payroll. A.I. is doing all the heavy lifting, and Kissinger would be impressed the unconstitutional no longer takes a couple days.

The world's pretty much on a permanent war footing, what lessons are left? Follow the money

Aug 05, 2019
Question being, how do they use the lesson learned? For us or against us?

They are us! We employ them. They are part of the reason we live better than 93% of the rest of the world. They must be doing a whole lot right!

Aug 05, 2019
If a layperson is so stupid as not to trust the findings of the scientists and only believe whatever they want to be true
Individual traits aren't the only factor.

Aug 06, 2019
So maybe the root problem is economic inequality?

Or maybe it's the FEAR of economic equality...

Aug 06, 2019
Question being, how do they use the lesson learned? For us or against us?
The people have always been the true enemies of rulers everywhere. Our ongoing domestication is evidence that this lesson was learned millennia ago.

"15 Whatever is has already been,
and what will be has been before;
and God will call the past to account.

"16 And I saw something else under the sun:

"In the place of judgment—wickedness was there,
in the place of justice—wickedness was there.

"17 I said to myself,

""God will bring into judgment
both the righteous and the wicked,
for there will be a [Proper] time for every activity,
a [Proper] time to judge every deed."" ecc3

Aug 06, 2019
And you should heed those words from the Bible, SpookyOtto; those very same words that you always seem to choose to belittle and vilify for its religious content. There are words to live by that come from the Bible, Otto. And you don't even have to be religious in any way. Such words are golden as truth, and are reliable. Such words tell of the Law, and it is that Law that will condemn you if disobeyed.

Aug 07, 2019
And you should heed those words from the Bible
-says the lying freak who thought the book of enoch was in the bible.

What does the Law have to say about liars who pretend to be religious when they obviously dont know the first thing about their holy book hmmmm you phony lying VANDAL?

Go shit somewhere else.

Aug 13, 2019
And you should heed those words from the Bible
-says the lying freak who thought the book of enoch was in the bible.

What does the Law have to say about liars who pretend to be religious when they obviously dont know the first thing about their holy book hmmmm you phony lying VANDAL?

Go shit somewhere else.


Open your mouth and I will consider allowing my dog to defecate in it.
I have no need to pretend to be 'religious', any more than YOU have a need to pretend that you're the owner of physorg.
The book of Enoch IS an extension OF the Bible. Didn't know that, did you. The Jewish authors of the Bible didn't have much of an affinity with Angels, so they left out/omitted much of the text concerning the relationship with Angels that ancient humans had.
But the spoken record of the history of the Enochian story was written elsewhere which DID put into text everything that was left out of the Old and New Testaments. You seem to be an antiSemite, by the way.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more