Scientists uncover exotic matter in the sun's atmosphere

Scientists uncover exotic matter in the sun's atmosphere
A solar flare captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory in 2015. Credit NASA, SDO. Credit: NASA/SDO.

Scientists from Ireland and France today announced a major new finding about how matter behaves in the extreme conditions of the Sun's atmosphere.

The scientists used large radio telescopes and ultraviolet cameras on a NASA spacecraft to better understand the exotic but poorly understood "fourth state of matter". Known as , this matter could hold the key to developing safe, clean and efficient nuclear energy generators on Earth. The scientists published their findings in the leading international journal Nature Communications.

Most of the matter we encounter in our everyday lives comes in the form of solid, liquid or gas, but the majority of the Universe is composed of plasma—a highly unstable and electrically charged fluid. The Sun is also made up of this plasma.

Despite being the most common form of matter in the Universe plasma remains a mystery, mainly due to its scarcity in on Earth, which makes it difficult to study. Special laboratories on Earth recreate the extreme conditions of space for this purpose, but the Sun represents an all-natural laboratory to study how plasma behaves in conditions that are often too extreme for the manually constructed Earth-based laboratories.

Postdoctoral Researcher at Trinity College Dublin and the Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies (DIAS), Dr. Eoin Carley, led the international collaboration. He said: "The solar atmosphere is a hotbed of extreme activity, with plasma temperatures in excess of 1 million degrees Celsius and particles that travel close to light-speed. The light-speed particles shine bright at , so we're able to monitor exactly how plasmas behave with large radio telescopes."

"We worked closely with scientists at the Paris Observatory and performed observations of the Sun with a large radio telescope located in Nançay in central France. We combined the radio observations with ultraviolet cameras on NASA's space-based Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft to show that plasma on the sun can often emit radio light that pulses like a light-house. We have known about this activity for decades, but our use of space and ground-based equipment allowed us to image the radio pulses for the first time and see exactly how plasmas become unstable in the ."

Studying the behaviour of plasmas on the Sun allows for a comparison of how they behave on Earth, where much effort is now under way to build magnetic confinement fusion reactors. These are nuclear energy generators that are much safer, cleaner and more efficient than their fission reactor cousins that we currently use for energy today.

Professor at DIAS and collaborator on the project, Peter Gallagher, said: "Nuclear fusion is a different type of nuclear energy generation that fuses plasma atoms together, as opposed to breaking them apart like fission does. Fusion is more stable and safer, and it doesn't require highly radioactive fuel; in fact, much of the waste material from fusion is inert helium."

"The only problem is that plasmas are highly unstable. As soon as the plasma starts generating energy, some natural process switches off the reaction. While this switch-off behaviour is like an inherent safety switch—fusion reactors cannot form runaway reactions—it also means the plasma is difficult to maintain in a stable state for energy generation. By studying how plasmas become unstable on the Sun, we can learn about how to control them on Earth."

The success of this research was made possible by the close ties between researchers at Trinity, DIAS, and their French collaborators.

Dr. Nicole Vilmer, lead collaborator on the project in Paris, said: "The Paris Observatory has a long history of making radio observations of the Sun, dating back to the 1950s. By teaming up with other radio astronomy groups around Europe we are able to make groundbreaking discoveries such as this one and continue the success we have in solar radio astronomy in France. It also further strengthens scientific collaboration between France and Ireland, which I hope continues in the future."

Dr. Carley previously worked at the Paris Observatory, funded by a fellowship awarded by the Irish Research Council and the European Commission. He continues to work closely with his French colleagues today, and hopes to soon study the same phenomena using both French instruments and newly built, state-of-the-art equipment in Ireland.

Dr. Carley added: "The collaboration with French scientists is ongoing and we're already making progress with newly built radio telescopes in Ireland, such as the Irish Low Frequency Array (I-LOFAR). I-LOFAR can be used to uncover new plasma physics on the Sun in far greater detail than before, teaching us about how matter behaves in both plasmas on the Sun, here on Earth and throughout the Universe in general."


Explore further

Researchers turn liquid metal into a plasma

More information: Eoin P. Carley et al, Loss-cone instability modulation due to a magnetohydrodynamic sausage mode oscillation in the solar corona, Nature Communications (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-10204-1
Journal information: Nature Communications

Citation: Scientists uncover exotic matter in the sun's atmosphere (2019, May 24) retrieved 16 September 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-scientists-uncover-exotic-sun-atmosphere.html
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
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May 24, 2019
This report absolutely amazes me because, 'Matter' doesn't exist. (If all atoms are made from EM Energy and it is a proven fact that they are from collider experiments, then Mass cannot exist.

May 24, 2019
This report absolutely amazes me because, 'Matter' doesn't exist. (If all atoms are made from EM Energy and it is a proven fact that they are from collider experiments, then Mass cannot exist.
I don't know where to start...

May 24, 2019
I was surprised to learn that plasma undergoing fusion is unstable even in the Sun. That new information makes me realize how difficult it is for our Earth-based engineers and physicists to harness fusion in such machines as we are currently building.

May 24, 2019
This report absolutely amazes me because, 'Matter' doesn't exist. (If all atoms are made from EM Energy and it is a proven fact that they are from collider experiments, then Mass cannot exist.

The vast majority of atomic mass comes from hadrons (protons, neutrons), and within those, from the gluon's QCD binding energy which is decidedly not EM.

May 24, 2019
So the funny thing is that the title describes a very technical advance, whether or not the ramifications are great. Nothing new for plasma/corona physics.

This report absolutely amazes me because, 'Matter' doesn't exist. (If all atoms are made from EM Energy and it is a proven fact that they are from collider experiments, then Mass cannot exist.
I don't know where to start...


Let's start with that mass gives us weight and inertia, something any school child would now or learn.

Then note that there is no "professor" commenting here, and personally I will block that tag for inane trolling.

@Ralph: The article is confusing.

The fusion that heats a star happens in the core or in later stages in fusion shells as the fusion products gets more massive. This heating is fairly stable when the star is on the so called "main sequence" stage of its life.

The corona is very diffuse but also very hot, akin to our stratosphere, and so much more complex and little fusing.

May 24, 2019
Title is incorrect, plasma is not exotic matter, it is plasma. Exotic matter, also called "Negative Matter" is theoretical. Negative matter has opposite properties of matter. For example, it would repel real mass rather than attract it.

May 24, 2019
I was surprised to learn that plasma undergoing fusion is unstable even in the Sun. That new information makes me realize how difficult it is for our Earth-based engineers and physicists to harness fusion in such machines as we are currently building.


1. Deuterium/proton fusion into helium-3 accounts for 40% of the Sun's total energy.

2. Helium-3/helium-3 fusion into helium-4 accounts for 40% of the Sun's total energy.

3. Proton/proton fusion into deuterium 10% & helium-3/helium-4 fusion into two helium-4 10%.

Two protons fusing together form a diproton, two protons temporarily create helium-2 so unstable a configuration that it lasts only for femto-seconds & it fissions. Fusion of hydrogen to helium is less than half our Sun's energy output, just 40%.

May 24, 2019
Transfer this configuration to our fusion reactors
Benni> Two protons fusing together form a diproton, two protons temporarily create helium-2 so unstable a configuration that it lasts only for femto-seconds & it fissions. Fusion of hydrogen to helium is less than half our Sun's energy output, just 40%

Considering this haphazard and low energy output
Compared to this high energy input
How does this pan out in our fusion reactors
Because "Two protons fusing together " becoming unstable is why neutrons transform into protons
Neutrons pass unhindered to this nucleon core then decay into protons
Because
Two protons cannot approach each other

May 24, 2019
Because "Two protons fusing together " becoming unstable is why neutrons transform into protons
.........don't follow you here about "neutrons transform into protons", when a neutron decays it is not transforming, it is simply breaking apart into three different particles, an electron, neutrino, & proton.

Two protons cannot approach each other
......."approach" & repelling due to same charge is one thing, that they can actually bump into one another & fuse for a femto-second is a less than normal condition which has been determined to occur under extraordinary high temperature conditions.

Earthbound fusion systems use the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, similar to #1 above and not the diproton fusion process, this because it is so highly unstable due to same charge conditions.

May 24, 2019
Benni, a little secret
..don't follow you here about "neutrons transform into protons", when a neutron decays it is not transforming, it is simply breaking apart into three different particles, an electron, neutrino, & proton.

On PW, it was said a neutron contained a proton and electron inside the neutron that when the time was right broke apart into its constituent parts
the hullabaloo that ensued
would send shivers through your spine, Benni
you have never seen the quantum fluctuations blowing in the breeze
this is because Benni you have never seen PW
Benni, you have been molly-collied on this phys.org
you have been wrapped up in cotton wool and treated gently by your detractors
Benni, this holiday camp you live on this phys.org amongst the lambs
has lulled you into a false sense of heavenly bliss
apparently on PW Benni, a Neutron is a particle that does not contain a proton, nor electron nor an neutrino
According to PW these are created on decay they don't exist otherwise

May 24, 2019
According to PW these are created on decay they don't exist otherwise
.....correct, nowhere did I imply differently. Who or what is PW?

May 25, 2019
Isnt the aurora borealis also a plasma? And the glowy part of lightning?

May 25, 2019
Benni
"don't follow you here about "neutrons transform into protons", when a neutron decays it is not transforming, it is simply breaking apart into three different particles, an electron, neutrino, & proton"
Benni> According to PW these are created on decay they don't exist otherwise
.....correct, nowhere did I imply differently. Who or what is PW?

This is where Benni, these esoteric P.W commentators pointed out when a neutron decays, it is not simply breaking apart into different particles, but it is the energy of the decaying neutron that in combination of the weak nuclear force and those revered quarks that is being released which forms particles of particular energies as all depending on the kinetic energy of the original neutron decides the final particles as they were comparing the decaying neutron to the decaying pion ejecting a muon at the speed of light
so Benni you appear to be in this esoteric world of these P.W professors commentating their hard won wisdom

May 25, 2019
those revered quarks that is being released which forms particles of particular energies as all depending on the kinetic energy of the original neutron
......whoever the PWs are, I would remind them that existence of quarks remains a hypothesis, none have ever been isolated.......it's one of those Pop-Cosmology fantasies in the search for the ETERNAL NEUTRON while continuing to promulgate their black hole theory that neutron stars are the seeds to the formation of those BHs.

Quark Theory was concocted for the express purpose as a go-around of the Immutable Law of Nuclear physics that a free unbound neutron has a mere 14.7 minute lifespan before it decays into an electron, proton, & neutrino, anyone who argues otherwise has never cracked the cover of a college textbook on Nuclear Physics like I have.

........so Benni you appear to be in this esoteric world of these P.W professors commentating their hard won wisdom
......seems to be the case.

May 25, 2019
plasma remains a mystery, mainly due to its scarcity in natural conditions on Earth

But isn't fire a plasma?

May 25, 2019
plasma remains a mystery, mainly due to its scarcity in natural conditions on Earth

But isn't fire a plasma? ......partially so.

May 25, 2019
..."that a free unbound neutron has a mere 14.7 minute lifespan before it decays into an electron, proton, & neutrino, anyone who argues otherwise has never cracked the cover of a college textbook on Nuclear Physics like I have.

Some of the cultists seem to think that's an   a n t i -neutrino; but hey, I guess your textbook has some special crack.

May 25, 2019
Quark Theory was concocted for the express purpose as a go-around of the Immutable Law of Nuclear physics that a free unbound neutron has a mere 14.7 minute lifespan before it decays into an electron, proton, & neutrino, anyone who argues otherwise has never cracked the cover of a college textbook on Nuclear Physics like I have


No, you idiot, you obviously haven't. 14.7 minutes is the mean lifetime, you cretin, as has been repeatedly pointed out to you. Get an education, you fool.

May 25, 2019
I was surprised to learn that plasma undergoing fusion is unstable even in the Sun. That new information makes me realize how difficult it is for our Earth-based engineers and physicists to harness fusion in such machines as we are currently building.

Right on....and after 65 years of big spending, Big Science continues to show how unlikely it is that controlled fusion will occur on Earth. HOWEVER....employing fusion power is relatively easy, if we will just get serious:

https://uploads.d...69c9.jpg

May 25, 2019
..."that a free unbound neutron has a mere 14.7 minute lifespan before it decays into an electron, proton, & neutrino, anyone who argues otherwise has never cracked the cover of a college textbook on Nuclear Physics like I have.

Some of the cultists seem to think that's an   a n t i -neutrino; but hey, I guess your textbook has some special crack. ......it's the same particle, just opposite spin to it.

14.7 minutes is the mean lifetime
......sez one who has never cracked the covers on a textbook in Nuclear Physics. A decaying neutron does not have an average or mean lifetime, it's a Pop-Cosmology fantasy to think otherwise.

May 25, 2019
......sez one who has never cracked the covers on a textbook in Nuclear Physics. A decaying neutron does not have an average or mean lifetime, it's a Pop-Cosmology fantasy to think otherwise.


I know far more about all physics than a cretin like you. It has been shown to you umpteen times that that is a mean lifetime. You will not find any scientist saying different. It is not my fault that you are too thick to understand high school physics.

May 25, 2019
Benni, according to P.W
While neutrons in stable nuclei can exist for an eternity, a free neutron hangs around for about 15 min before it decays via the weak interaction to a proton, an electron and an antineutrino
https://physicswo...deepens/

Benni, now you know who this P.W is
you would be pleased to know
when in their prime
there resident nuclear physicist commentator
Also agreed with your statement
"Quark Theory was concocted for the express purpose as a go-around of the Immutable Law of Nuclear physics that a free unbound neutron has a mere 14.7 minute lifespan before it decays into an electron, proton, & neutrino"
This is this water under this bridge now, as that magic has gone some years hence, just existing as memories in our minds

May 25, 2019
^^^^Complete crap. It is a mean lifetime, you idiot.

May 25, 2019
it's the same particle, just opposite spin to it
Yeah, like a positron is the same as an electron, just opposite charge to it.

May 25, 2019
A decaying neutron does not have an average or mean lifetime, it's a Pop-Cosmology fantasy to think otherwise.
We're talking   h a l f - l i f e   here; do you agree to that? We don't have to posit, post-Gell-Mann, that a neutron is a restive trio of quarks, only that it's unstable, like tritium is unstable, and a bunch of them are prone to decay such that at 14.7 minutes, ~half of them are gone.

May 25, 2019
We're talking   h a l f - l i f e   here; do you agree to that? We don't have to posit, post-Gell-Mann, that a neutron is a restive trio of quarks, only that it's unstable, like tritium is unstable, and a bunch of them are prone to decay such that at 14.7 minutes, ~half of them are gone.


Strictly speaking, half of them are gone in the half life decay time, which is ~ 10.2 mins. The average lifetime of any one neutron is 14.7 mins. However, this is beyond the grasp of Benni and Granville, despite it being explained to them numerous times, with reference to papers and the figures therefrom. This is due to them being innately stupid.

May 25, 2019
Scientists uncover exotic matter in the sun's atmosphere

Most laypersons
Are familiar with the three states of matter solids liquids gases
But there are other forms that exist
Plasma is the most abundant form of matter in the universe
Found throughout our solar system in the sun and other planetary bodies
Plasmas consist of a hot soup of free moving electrons and ions
Atoms that have lost their electrons
That easily conducts electricity

Lets go back to this beginning, Scientists uncover exotic matter in the sun's atmosphere
Is this startling exotic matter
That has just been uncovered
Plasma

Heavens above
this sun
this golden orb
this star that hath given life in its 5 billion year life
as long as anyone cares to remember these 5 billion years
an 800 thousand mile diameter ball of Plasma
that is
last time we looked
plasma in any layman's book
who frequents this phys.org
as these plasma articles can only be read at phys.org
Is fully aware of this plasma

May 25, 2019
Using Plasma as Energy

The only problem is that nuclear fusion plasmas are highly unstable
as soon as this plasma starts generating energy
a natural process switches off this reaction
while this switch off behaviour is like an inherent safety switch
fusion reactors cannot form runaway reactions
this means this plasma is difficult to maintain in a stable state for energy generation
by studying how plasmas become unstable in this Sun
We can learn how to control them on Earth

Plasma in their natural state
in this sun
are not to produce energy
to warm our homes
propel our cars
Provide warmth to grow our crops

Plasma fusion is simply an atomic process
that atoms engage in to pass these Yotta years by in this vacuum
these atoms have absolutely no purpose in what they do
so this sun is not for to produce energy
so because of this fact
these atoms can consume more energy than they emit
because
They have an 800,000mile diameter plasmatic ball of 2x10+30kg

May 25, 2019
A decaying neutron does not have an average or mean lifetime, it's a Pop-Cosmology fantasy to think otherwise.
We're talking   h a l f - l i f e   here; do you agree to that? We don't have to posit, post-Gell-Mann, that a neutron is a restive trio of quarks, only that it's unstable, like tritium is unstable, and a bunch of them are prone to decay such that at 14.7 minutes, ~half of them are gone.
......if you want to take that deviant tact for redefining Beta-particle decay, then in 14.7 more minutes the other half will be gone because there has never been recorded in the history of nuclear physics of a free unbound neutron that did not decay within 14.7 minutes. You're problem is that you don't comprehend beta-particle decay, I do, I work with it every day.

May 25, 2019
^^^ You are lying, you idiot, and have been shown the experiments that prove you to be a liar. Give up you uneducated posing clown.

May 25, 2019
I work with it every day.


Is another lie. You don't even know what a half-life is, you Dunning-Kruger affected retard.

May 25, 2019
^^^ You are lying, you idiot, and have been shown the experiments that prove you to be a liar. Give up you uneducated posing clown.
.......there are no such experiments, it's all in your deviant hyperbolic way of trying to reason around an Immutable Law of Nuclear Physics, that there somewhere exists a free unbound neutron whose lifespan has exceeded 14.7 minutes.

May 25, 2019
^^^ You are lying, you idiot, and have been shown the experiments that prove you to be a liar. Give up you uneducated posing clown.
.......there are no such experiments, it's all in your deviant hyperbolic way of trying to reason around an Immutable Law of Nuclear Physics, that there somewhere exists a free unbound neutron whose lifespan has exceeded 14.7 minutes.


Yes there is you lying cretin. You have been shown the papers and the figures, you useless idiot.
Here again is another one, for the mentally retarded to fail to understand;

http://www.imageb...33234034

May 25, 2019
.......there are no such experiments, it's all in your deviant hyperbolic way of trying to reason around an Immutable Law of Nuclear Physics, that there somewhere exists a free unbound neutron whose lifespan has exceeded 14.7 minutes.


Yes there is
Here again is another one,

http://www.imageb...33234034
......nope, you misread it like you always do.

May 25, 2019
......if you want to take that deviant tact for redefining Beta-particle decay, then in 14.7 more minutes the other half will be gone because there has never been recorded in the history of nuclear physics of a free unbound neutron that did not decay within 14.7 minutes. You're problem is that you don't comprehend beta-particle decay, I do, I work with it every day.
No, in ~14.7 minutes, half of what neutrons remain will have likewise decayed. Half-life is a very general, and notional, construct. One could arbitrarily set 'quarter-life' or '0.667-life'. And the half-life of assimilated Mg in the bloodstream [the other half excreted], etc.

May 25, 2019
.......there are no such experiments, it's all in your deviant hyperbolic way of trying to reason around an Immutable Law of Nuclear Physics, that there somewhere exists a free unbound neutron whose lifespan has exceeded 14.7 minutes.


Yes there is
Here again is another one,

http://www.imageb...33234034
......nope, you misread it like you always do.


No, I have not misread it you cretinous retard. Show me what I'm misreading you thick, useless clown.

May 25, 2019
.......there are no such experiments, it's all in your deviant hyperbolic way of trying to reason around an Immutable Law of Nuclear Physics, that there somewhere exists a free unbound neutron whose lifespan has exceeded 14.7 minutes.


Yes there is
Here again is another one,

http://www.imageb...33234034
......nope, you misread it like you always do.
G'wan... there's nothing to misread. You're claiming there are no neutrons at (even) 3000 seconds?

May 25, 2019
By the way, that figure was from;

Neutron lifetime measurement with the UCN trap-in-trap MAMBO II
Pichlmaier, A. et al.

There used to be a free access option, but the link is not working. However, for those wanting to read it, and who are capable of understanding it (i.e. not Benni);

http://sci-hub.se...0.08.032

May 25, 2019
.......there are no such experiments, it's all in your deviant hyperbolic way of trying to reason around an Immutable Law of Nuclear Physics, that there somewhere exists a free unbound neutron whose lifespan has exceeded 14.7 minutes.


Yes there is
Here again is another one,

http://www.imageb...33234034
......nope, you misread it like you always do.


G'wan... there's nothing to misread. You're claiming there are no neutrons at (even) 3000 seconds?
,,,,,,the discussion is NOT about Beta-Particle Decay for which there is no known incidence beyond 14.7 minutes. Beta-Particle Decay is not measured in rates of half-life, Gamma Radiation Decay is. Take some time & study something about Beta Particle Decay of a neutron or you will never get it right as to what you think you're reading in that link.

May 25, 2019
Here is another one;

http://www.imageb...33242064

That is from the paper;

Magnetic storage of UCN for a measurement of the neutron lifetime
Ezhov, V. F. et al.
Paywalled. However;

http://sci-hub.se...9.07.071

May 25, 2019
the discussion is NOT about Beta-Particle Decay for which there is no known incidence beyond 14.7 minutes. Beta-Particle Decay is not measured in rates of half-life, Gamma Radiation Decay is. Take some time & study something about Beta Particle Decay of a neutron or you will never get it right as to what you think you're reading in that link.
g'wan wi'ya, laddie... lol...

May 25, 2019
.......there are no such experiments, it's all in your deviant hyperbolic way of trying to reason around an Immutable Law of Nuclear Physics, that there somewhere exists a free unbound neutron whose lifespan has exceeded 14.7 minutes.


Yes there is
Here again is another one,

http://www.imageb...33234034
......nope, you misread it like you always do.


G'wan... there's nothing to misread. You're claiming there are no neutrons at (even) 3000 seconds?
,,,,,,the discussion is NOT about Beta-Particle Decay for which there is no known incidence beyond 14.7 minutes. Beta-Particle Decay is not measured in rates of half-life, Gamma Radiation Decay is. Take some time & study something about Beta Particle Decay of a neutron or you will never get it right as to what you think you're reading in that link.


Stop talking crap, you moron. Anything that beta-decays has a half-life, retard.

May 25, 2019
Free-Neutron Beta-Decay Half-Life
Christensen, C. J. et al.
https://journals....D.5.1628

The β-decay half-life of the free neutron was measured.


And we're supposed to listen to an unqualified moron who doesn't even know what a half-life is? Get back to mopping the floors, you poser.

May 25, 2019
And another one;

http://www.imageb...33245294

From;

Neutron lifetime measurements and effective spectral cleaning with an ultracold neutron trap using a vertical Halbach octupole permanent magnet array
Leung, K. K. H. et al.
https://arxiv.org...0929.pdf

May 25, 2019
For pity's sake, lock this thread. Before Trump replaces Rick Perry with Benni as head of the DOE.

May 25, 2019
Physics World
P.W, a free neutron hangs around for about 15 min before it decays via the weak interaction to a proton, an electron and an antineutrino
https://physicswo...deepens/

The weak interaction
is the mechanism of interaction between subatomic particles that is responsible for the radioactive decay of atoms.

In nuclear physics, beta decay β-decay a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray fast energetic electron or positron is emitted from an atomic nucleus

So what is this weak interaction that P.W speaks of?

The effective range of the weak force is limited to subatomic distances, and is less than the diameter of a proton. It is one of the four known force-related fundamental interactions of nature, alongside the strong interaction, electromagnetism, and gravitation.
for in this weak interaction beta decay exists
https://en.wikipe...eraction

May 25, 2019
For pity's sake, lock this thread. Before Trump replaces Rick Perry with Benni as head of the DOE.


Department of Eejits?

May 25, 2019
DanR's not to be discussed list

DanR
danR> For pity's sake, lock this thread. Before Trump replaces Rick Perry with Benni as head of the DOE.

As you are aware of this psychology
If you want this party to come to an end
You are batting your head against this plasmatic brick wall
Because
This plasma contains neutrons
Well, it did
Last time we looked
Nigh on 15 minutes ago

Out of curiosity, danR
Which other atomic particles are on danR's not to be discussed list

May 25, 2019
Anything that beta-decays has a half-life
......nope, only atomic mass radioactive isotopes decays through Gamma Radiation Decay measured in half-life.

A neutron is not an atom, therefore it can't decay via radioactive Gamma Radiation Decay measured in rates of half life peculiar to each type of atomic isotope.

May 25, 2019
Anything that beta-decays has a half-life
......nope, only atomic mass radioactive isotopes decays through Gamma Radiation Decay measured in half-life.

A neutron is not an atom, therefore it can't decay via radioactive Gamma Radiation Decay measured in rates of half life peculiar to each type of atomic isotope.


Idiot. Neutron decay is beta-decay. Anything that beta-decays has a half-life you ignorant clown.

https://www2.lbl....3/2.html

To the best of our knowledge, an isolated proton, a hydrogen nucleus with or without an electron, does not decay. However within a nucleus, the beta decay process can change a proton to a neutron. An isolated neutron is unstable and will decay with a half-life of 10.5 minutes.

May 25, 2019
Noticed there's an article on a blueshifted galaxy: https://phys.org/...oup.html

How 'bout that? Seems a bunch of wankers were trying to pretend there's no such thing not long ago.

That worked about as well as @Benni's neutrons, which all decay at the same time, spraying radiation in all directions in a pulse that would kill all life on Earth.

These supposed "people" (as far as anyone can tell, they're actually computer programs that spread FUD) can't keep their stories straight and appear to have gotten their "degrees" from the University of Mommy via home schooling.

May 25, 2019
the beta decay process can change a proton to a neutron.
....total bullshit, it's never happened in the entire history of the Universe, protons cannot change into neutrons.

An isolated neutron is unstable and will decay with a half-life of 10.5 minutes.
......just more of the same bullshit, it will decay it 14.7 minutes with no half-life measurement.

Hey, anthropologist, your favorite author probably has the same degree you do......Anthropology.

May 25, 2019
the beta decay process can change a proton to a neutron.
....total bullshit, it's never happened in the entire history of the Universe, protons cannot change into neutrons.

An isolated neutron is unstable and will decay with a half-life of 10.5 minutes.
......just more of the same bullshit, it will decay it 14.7 minutes with no half-life measurement.

Hey, anthropologist, your favorite author probably has the same degree you do......Anthropology.


Wrong dickhead. Not only are you a liar, you are as thick as a plank. You lose again, dummy.

May 25, 2019
.....total bullshit, it's never happened in the entire history of the Universe, protons cannot change into neutrons


Happens all the time, thicko. It is called Beta-plus decay.

May 25, 2019
What cracks me up is "exotic matter " for plasma...

May 26, 2019
What cracks me up is "exotic matter " for plasma...
says Whyde

Yes. "Exotic this and exotic that seems to be the trend in some scientific discussions lately. Perhaps the term "exotic" gives it an air of mystery, even a whiff of exotic aromatics, where saying "plasma" might be considered as 'gauche' (as in 'how gauche') in some scientific circles. Instead of Einstein, they are turning toward Yves Saint Laurent.
LOL
Someone just suggested "Erotic Matter" would be better.

May 26, 2019
"Exotic matter" has a specific meaning in physics.

Since you're home schooled and have a degree from the University of Mommy, I wouldn't expect you'd know that.

May 26, 2019
"Exotic matter" has a specific meaning in physics.

Since you're home schooled and have a degree from the University of Mommy, I wouldn't expect you'd know that.


Butting in again, Schneib? My discussion with Whyde didn't include you and your need for attention. Your ravenous appetite for teaching those things that are known already is merely a short distraction that will be forgotten in a few seconds after I place your scurrilous self on BLOCK. Bye bye arsehole.

May 26, 2019
WHY PROTONS CHANGE INTO NEUTRONS IN THIS VACUUM

Transfer this configuration to our fusion reactors
Two protons fusing together form a diproton, two protons temporarily create helium-2 so unstable a configuration that it lasts only for femto-seconds
Two protons fusing together becoming unstable is why neutrons transform into protons

WHY PROTONS CHANGE INTO NEUTRONS
Neutrons pass unhindered to this nucleon core then decay into protons
Because
Two protons cannot approach each other
In this vacuum a proton and electron cannot accept a second proton
a proton spiralling its electron in its magnetic field produces Bremsstrahlung radiation
by this process energy is produced to convert a PROTON to a NEUTRON all alone in this vacuum
NEUTRONS pass unhindered to this nucleon core then decay into PROTONS
because
Two protons cannot approach each other, so an energy neutral process

p.s. nature is simple in how it solves its problems it simply neutralises this proton into a neutron

May 26, 2019
Not really interested in the opinions of the home schooled.

May 26, 2019
IS THIS TRUE

This question
do
neutrons
in this nucleon
decay
Into protons

Changing this nucleon proton number

May 26, 2019
IS THIS TRUE

This question
do
neutrons
in this nucleon
decay
Into protons

Changing this nucleon proton number


What crap is this? Of course they bloody do. What do you think carbon-14 decays into? Did you give high school science a swerve?

May 26, 2019
Neutron decay is beta-decay. Anything that beta-decays has a half-life.....
Beta-decay is not measured in units of half-life, it is measured in units of ELAPSED TIME. Only Gamma-Radiation Decay for radio-active isotopes is measured in units of Half-Life, but as a Nuclear/Electrical Engineer I wouldn't expect an Anthropologist like you to comprehend the difference would I?

I just love goading you into making novice mis-statements like this, the fun & entertainment factor is just priceless, it's why I have never put you on Block.

May 26, 2019
.....total bullshit, it's never happened in the entire history of the Universe, protons cannot change into neutrons


Happens all the time, thicko. It is called Beta-plus decay.
.......but that is far different than a proton changing INTO a neutron, you'd do well to read more about what ACTUALLY happens during Beta-plus decay because so far you have shown you don't comprehend it.

May 26, 2019
What's "neutrons in a nucleon" mean?

Just askin'.

May 26, 2019
Not really interested in the opinions of the home schooled.
......so why then do you submit so many Comments?

RNP
May 26, 2019
@Benni

Beta-decay is not measured in units of half-life.


Why do you keep making this ridiculous claim? It is obviously untrue.

I know it is probably pointless, but et's try one more time.

Here is a high school learning resource.
https://www.khana...-article

Here is a wikipedia page giving the bete decay half-lives of a variety of particles and atoms;
https://en.wikipe...ta_decay

Here is a link to a paper called "Calculations of the β-decay half-lives of neutron-deficient nuclei";
https://iopscienc...5/054103

What more evidence do you need?

May 26, 2019
What more evidence do you need?
......something that demonstartes YOU actually know the difference between Beta-Particle Decay & Gamma Radiation Decay. So far all you've demonstarted is that you don't know the difference between radio-active atomic isotopes & sub-atomic particle beta decay.

Hey, mister novice to the party, keep the entertainment coming, this is enjoyable as you continue thinking all this is high school physics & you still never comprehend the difference between radio-active atomic isotopes & sub-atomic particle & their decay processes.


May 26, 2019
.....total bullshit, it's never happened in the entire history of the Universe, protons cannot change into neutrons


Happens all the time, thicko. It is called Beta-plus decay.
.......but that is far different than a proton changing INTO a neutron, you'd do well to read more about what ACTUALLY happens during Beta-plus decay because so far you have shown you don't comprehend it.


I comprehend it far better than a moron like you.

May 26, 2019
Neutron decay is beta-decay. Anything that beta-decays has a half-life.....
Beta-decay is not measured in units of half-life, it is measured in units of ELAPSED TIME. Only Gamma-Radiation Decay for radio-active isotopes is measured in units of Half-Life, but as a Nuclear/Electrical Engineer I wouldn't expect an Anthropologist like you to comprehend the difference would I?

I just love goading you into making novice mis-statements like this, the fun & entertainment factor is just priceless, it's why I have never put you on Block.


You really are a complete moron. Carbon-14 decay is beta decay, you uneducated idiot. Does that have a half-life? Neutron decay is beta decay. I have linked you to a paper entitled "Free-Neutron Beta-Decay Half-Life." Which part of that is failing to penetrate what counts for your brain, you uneducated poser?

May 26, 2019
NOW FOR THE DIFFICULT IS THIS TRUE

This question in reverse
Do
Protons
In this nucleus
Decay
Into neutrons

Reducing the nucleus proton number

May 26, 2019
NOW FOR THE DIFFICULT IS THIS TRUE

This question in reverse
Do
Protons
In this nucleus
Decay
Into neutrons

Reducing the nucleus proton number


Does Google not work for idiots? SMH!

May 26, 2019
A good example of a positron emitter is potassium-40. It also decays by normal electron emission and by K-capture.

May 26, 2019
Jonesy
NOW FOR THE DIFFICULT IS THIS TRUE

This question in reverse
Do
Protons
In this nucleus
Decay
Into neutrons
Reducing the nucleus proton number

Jonesy> Does Google not work for idiots? SMH!

We will take that as a yes, that Protons In this nucleus Decay Into neutrons

If this all pans out
despite the fact we cannot see it happing
when the conditions are just right
Neutrons decay into protons and protons decay into neutrons

When you think about it
as there are very few free neutrons in this vacuum
it follows as we need neutrons
Protons decay into neutrons

A proton is converted into a neutron by positron emission and neutrino
changing the nuclide type
Neither the beta particle nor anti-neutrino exist within the nucleus prior to beta decay
but are created in the decay process
By this process, unstable atoms obtain a more stable ratio of protons to neutrons

A proton is particle of energy; change its energy, it becomes a neutron

May 26, 2019
As Jonesy Has Proved

Protons Decay into Neutrons Where These Neutrons Decay Back to Protons
which
comes
to
This lonely Proton in this vacuum when it succumbs to the Wiles of this Scrumptious Electron
this
theory as described in Wikipedia
means
when protons and electrons are alone in this vacuum
the proton can extract this energy of Bremsstrahlung radiation from these electrons to convert protons to neutrons
through this positron beta decay
so as to get these protons past this coulomb barrier

that once this pristine neutron passes through this coulomb barrier
through this beta decay converts this pristine neutron into a proton again
because
Two protons cannot approach each due to this coulomb barrier

May 26, 2019
"The only problem is that nuclear fusion plasmas are highly unstable. As soon as the plasma starts generating energy, some natural process switches off the reaction. While this switch-off behaviour is like an inherent safety switch—fusion reactors cannot form runaway reactions—it also means the plasma is difficult to maintain in a stable state for energy generation. By studying how plasmas become unstable on the Sun, we can learn about how to control them on Earth."


"some natural process"
Yes. Some natural process is preventing any 'runaway reactions'. The problem is the Tokamak itself. It is a CONTAINER that is meant to CONTAIN and ENCLOSE the nuclear fusion plasma reactions mainly to avoid the plasma leaking and entering the outside.
Consider that the SUN is only contained by SPACE ITSELF, which allows solar flares/solar radiation and the solar wind to have FREE REIN in our Solar System. There is NO ACTUAL containment of the Sun's nuclear reactions.
-contd-


May 26, 2019
-contd-

Thus, it is inherently impossible for a sustained nuclear plasma reaction within a Tokamak (or any other type of container) to be useful for producing nuclear fusion energy for the world's energy needs. Nuclear fusion energy REQUIRES FAR MORE SPACE than a Tokamak could provide.
Sorry granville and any other interested parties - it is simply not safe to continue on this route of containment of this type of energy.
No matter what materials the Tokamak is manufactured of, it will ALWAYS be TOO FLIMSY and THIN to hold and contain nuclear energy within it. They are trying to create a miniature STAR inside that container. It can't, and it won't go well.
The "shut-off" reaction to the plasma is similar to Entropy, particularly due to the container that is preventing any leakage of plasma to the outside. IOW, the nuclear fusion reaction is SUFFOCATED by the Tokamak.

May 26, 2019
Solar flares in fusion

SEU
You are starting to realise
that
this
Proton has an 800,000mile diameter ball of plasma that contains 2x10+30kg

One of the characterises of fusion in this sun
is
as this plasma becomes unstable, it flares
and it breaks free
in this 800,000miles of space
and in doing so heats up
because
SEU
As they have found out in these reactor
when these flares occur in the reactor core
the plasma heats up
which SEU, is exactly what we want
but
unfortunately these flares destroy this reactor core
so SEU
We contain this flare and consequently this reactor cools down
I think you can see where this is going SEU
The reactor is not 800,000miles in diameter weighing in at 2x10+30kg

To cut a long story short, these flares that melt this reactor core will make this reactor work
Meaneth thateth thiseth reactoreth iseth toeth smalleth

But you already worked that out on your Todd, SEU

May 26, 2019
Since when is plasma considered "exotic matter"? If plasma is exotic then what about dark or strange matter? Are they supposed to be the stuff unicorns and fairies are made of? I am frankly disappointed, since I expected something truly exotic was discovered. The title is a clickbait at best, misleading at worst.

May 26, 2019
This report absolutely amazes me because, 'Matter' doesn't exist. (If all atoms are made from EM Energy and it is a proven fact that they are from collider experiments, then Mass cannot exist.

Google the words "Higg's boson" & "Higg's field".

May 26, 2019
Solar flares in fusion

SEU
You are starting to realise that this
Proton has an 800,000mile diameter ball of plasma that contains 2x10+30kg

One of the characterises of fusion in this sun
is as this plasma becomes unstable, it flares
and it breaks free in this 800,000miles of space
and in doing so heats up
because SEU
As they have found out in these reactor
when these flares occur in the reactor core the plasma heats up
which SEU, is exactly what we want
but unfortunately these flares destroy this reactor core
so SEU
We contain this flare and consequently this reactor cools down
I think you can see where this is going SEU
The reactor is not 800,000miles in diameter weighing in at 2x10+30kg

To cut a long story short, these flares that melt this reactor core will make this reactor work
Meaneth thateth thiseth reactoreth iseth toeth smalleth

But you already worked that out on your Todd, SEU
says granville

You would need a reactor the size of Earth.

May 26, 2019
@ granville
"You would need a reactor the size of Earth."

In addition to that size, you would have to eliminate the material containment vessel such as a Tokamak and instead find possibly another form of Plasma that is compatible with the Sun's plasma so that the Plasmic container will contain the plasma which you want to heat up to 27 million degrees F. (15 million degrees celsius) as it is at the core of the Sun.
One million degrees is not hot enough to turn H into plasma in the Fusion process. IIRC

May 26, 2019
This report absolutely amazes me because, 'Matter' doesn't exist. (If all atoms are made from EM Energy and it is a proven fact that they are from collider experiments, then Mass cannot exist.
says The Prof

Google the words "Higg's boson" & "Higg's field".
says Sahstar

LOL I suspect that it was Otto in the disguise of The Prof. He enjoys spoofing serious discussions on serious topics and has done that many times in the past, under various user names.

May 26, 2019
This a little point that is being put aside
a continuously running reactor
will heat up to a 100miliion degrees
The only know material to withstand fusion temperature is plasma

As it is not exactly a material that can be machined in factories

May 26, 2019
There is NO ACTUAL containment of the Sun's nuclear reactions.
......hugely key point. The tokamak is trying to create containment using magnetic fields, the Sun doesn't have "containment" limitations.

May 26, 2019
This a little point that is being put aside
a continuously running reactor
will heat up to a 100miliion degrees
The only know material to withstand fusion temperature is plasma

As it is not exactly a material that can be machined in factories
says granville

LOL No it isn't. And the only possible source that I know of at the moment for that type of plasma is the Sun itself. ~98 million miles as the crow flies is quite a run for the purpose of syphoning off a rather large ship-full of plasma to keep the humans content and warm in winter, cool in summer.

Would they appreciate the effort? I think not, as most humans are unappreciative if things are done FOR them.
In any case, there is no such technology that could build such a spaceship to arrive anywhere NEAR the Sun in order to scoop up its plasma while preventing it from cooling.
I was just wondering if LIGHTNING produces plasma - or is it only antimatter? Is antimatter a type of plasma?

May 26, 2019
Just read that LIGHTNING BOLTS are a form of plasma. And the temperature might be a million degrees (I don't know if it is).
Neon is a plasma as electricity runs through it in Neon lights. There are many other examples of plasma. But a plasma that is able to withstand the same FUSION temperatures as the Sun?

May 26, 2019
There is NO ACTUAL containment of the Sun's nuclear reactions.
......hugely key point. The tokamak is trying to create containment using magnetic fields, the Sun doesn't have "containment" limitations.
says Benni

THAT is the crux of the biscuit. Which is why flares and solar wind are free to come and go as the Sun pleases. But in any case, the high temp of the Plasma emanating from dear old Sol is the kind of temperature that has never been attempted in a Tokamak on Earth. AFAIK 15 million degrees Celsius. Any containment vessel for such a Plasma would be destroyed at such a temperature. And how do you prevent the plasma from escaping if it isn't contained?

May 27, 2019
In this earth's atmosphere
Just read that LIGHTNING BOLTS are a form of plasma. And the temperature might be a million degrees
Neon is plasma as electricity runs through it in Neon lights. There are many other examples of plasma. But a plasma that is able to withstand the same FUSION temperatures as the Sun?

In these thunder clouds
these bolts of lightning
Bremsstrahlung radiation is produced
for in this high temperature plasma in these lightning bolts
these scrumptious electrons are spiralling these protons magnetic field lines
these electrons and protons in this lightning plasma
are producing gamma-ray radiation

SEU, if you ever doubt this power of this proton and the wiles of this scrumptious electron
producing far more energy than this fusion reactor
In a simple lightning bolt

When you see these forked lightning bolts streak across the sky
These electrons in their trillions are producing gamma-rays in this lightning plasma

As this is the protons energy in this vacuum

May 27, 2019
For SEU, in these lightning bolts

As this electric field in this cloud
makes connection with this earths negative charge
this lightning bolt that reaches up to this cloud
where this cloud discharges its self down this plasmatic vacuous plasma
that is millions of degrees
Your answer SEU
To these plasma containment vessels is before your very eyes
for every time to see this forked lightning
streaking to this ground
this atmosphere surrounds this plasmatic lightning bolt
as this atmosphere is a gas
as this gaseous oxygen and nitrogen
Can withstand this 100million degrees that occurs in these fusion reactors

The question is SEU, how do we create a continuous lightning bolt
for in this desert when lightning strikes this sand
glassy tubes are created as thes bolts streak through this sand
for it is time to ditch these metallic fusion reactors
and user this gaseous atmosphere and sand
To extract this gamma-ray radiation from a continuous lightning bolt
To produce Electricity

May 27, 2019
Benni
the beta decay process can change a proton to a neutron.
....total bullshit, it's never happened in the entire history of the Universe, protons cannot change into neutrons.
An isolated neutron is unstable and will decay with a half-life of 10.5 minutes.
......just more of the same bullshit, it will decay it 14.7 minutes with no half-life measurement.
Hey, anthropologist, your favorite author probably has the same degree you do......Anthropology.

Wading through these Neanderthals
As one does
As we observe atoms created in this vacuum
Far away from these uncontained solar fusion reactors
For this proton and scrumptious electron produce atoms without being anywhere near a star
As this neutron decays in this 14.7minutes
Means neutrons are a rarity in this vacuum
This means protons all alone in this vacuum with their electrons Bremsstrahlung radiation
Create neutrons from protons all alone in this vacuous vacuum?

Benni; The question is, why not?

May 27, 2019
Logic and causality with and understanding of what energy actually is will give you a clue on your Easter Egg Hunt!

May 27, 2019
Magnetic Energy

Benni, this proton
all alone with its electron in this vacuum
has two main properties
to make physical contact with its electron
its Electric field and Magnetic field
as there is no energy in this absolute zero temperature of this vacuum
this frigid proton and electron are at their absolute minimum energy
There is absolutely no energy to be seen any where

For when this electron makes contact
with its Protons Magnetic Field
due to a magnetic property
This Scrumptious Electron can Spiral its Protons Magnetic Field
as this electron tightly helter skelters this magnetic field line
these electrons produce copious amounts of energy
for this energy these electrons produce
out of absolute zero energy
Electrons produce gamma-radiation, the most energetic energy in this Universe

May 27, 2019
the beta decay process can change a proton to a neutron.
....total bullshit, it's never happened in the entire history of the Universe, protons cannot change into neutrons.
An isolated neutron is unstable and will decay with a half-life of 10.5 minutes.
......just more of the same bullshit, it will decay it 14.7 minutes with no half-life measurement.
Hey, anthropologist, your favorite author probably has the same degree you do......Anthropology.

For this proton and scrumptious electron produce atoms without being anywhere near a star
As this neutron decays in this 14.7minutes
Means neutrons are a rarity in this vacuum
This means protons all alone in this vacuum with their electrons Bremsstrahlung radiation
Create neutrons from protons all alone in this vacuous vacuum?

Benni; The question is, why not?
,,,,,,,because where does the increased the MASS come from? It's unheard of that a neutron & a proton can be of the same mass.

May 27, 2019
Benni, this proton
all alone with its electron in this vacuum
has two main properties
to make physical contact with its electron
its Electric field and Magnetic field
........it'll need way more than the presence of an electron, there's also the neutrino & a gamma ray in this admixture or the nuclear forces needed to bind them together at exactly the right energy level will never occur.

It never fails, whenever I read Pop-Cosmology psycho-babble about Nuclear Physics they always neglect key elements about the makeup that binds atomic & sub-atomic particles.

Anyone who thinks that placing an electron in near proximity of a proton will somehow create a neutron is someone who has never studied the Periodic Chart of the Elements, you end up with the most common element in the Universe, HYDROGEN & not a NEUTRON.

ANYONE who thinks an electron & a proton are the admixture ingredients for creating a neutron is living in a world where psycho-babble reigns supreme.

May 27, 2019
^^^^Uneducated, posing clown.

May 27, 2019
....total bullshit, it's never happened in the entire history of the Universe, protons cannot change into neutrons.


Total crap from an uneducated moron. Beta-+ decay, you idiot. Go read about it, you bullshit spouting bag of crap. Here it is explained for UK high school kids. Catch up, thicko;

https://revisions...ta-decay


May 27, 2019
^^^^Uneducated, posing clown.
.......coming from one who consistently has demonstrated he doesn't comprehend the Periodic Chart of the Elements.

Hey, anthropologist, do you even know what the Periodic Chart of the Elements is? In getting your anthropology degree you weren't required to take chemistry so why would you know about it. Give Benni some gratitude for introducing you to some hard facts, that an electron & a proton admixture do not a NEUTRON make, yeah, it makes hydrogen, sorry to have to burst your Pop-Cosmology fantasy using very ordinary data from the PC.

May 27, 2019
And here is an everyday use of beta-+ decay in medical scanning;

https://www.ncbi....17762446

Radioisotopes that decay via beta emission are widely used in science and medicine, particularly in the field of oncology. PET imaging, which exploits the basic mechanism of beta plus decay or positron emission, is becoming increasingly important in cancer diagnosis, follow-up evaluation, and radiation therapy planning.


You lose again, thicko. Get an education.

May 27, 2019
^^^^Uneducated, posing clown.
.......coming from one who consistently has demonstrated he doesn't comprehend the Periodic Chart of the Elements.

Hey, anthropologist, do you even know what the Periodic Chart of the Elements is? In getting your anthropology degree you weren't required to take chemistry so why would you know about it. Give Benni some gratitude for introducing you to some hard facts, that an electron & a proton admixture do not a NEUTRON make, yeah, it makes hydrogen, sorry to have to burst your Pop-Cosmology fantasy using very ordinary data from the PC.


Uneducated, lying moron. Back your crap up with some references to the literature. Nobody cares about the misunderstandings of a Dunning-Kruger afflicted cretin.

May 27, 2019
.....that an electron & a proton admixture do not a NEUTRON make, yeah, it makes hydrogen


Lol. What a clown. Ever heard of electron capture, dumbo? Didn't cover that in janitor school, did they?

http://hyperphysi....html#c3

Educate your miserable self, you posing ignoramus.

May 27, 2019
@Benni

The Proton and the Electron are attracted to each other. They merge, then build and live inside their Neutron house with their baby, whom they call Neutrino. Their Neutron house just happens to be within a gated community called a Nucleus where virtually nobody ever leaves that gated Nucleus (Nucleus Acres) community. But one day, the Neutron house is moved out of the Nucleus community and is seen sliding down the road at a fast clip. Within several minutes the Neutron house begins to fall apart in what is called Beta-decay or Beta-minus-decay. As their Neutron house is falling apart, Mr & Mrs Proton and their baby Neutrino are set free and then _________

granville, please finish this story. Thanks
:)

May 27, 2019
"In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) is emitted from an atomic nucleus. For example, beta decay of a neutron transforms it into a proton by the emission of an electron accompanied by an antineutrino, or conversely a proton is converted into a neutron by the emission of a positron (positron emission) with a neutrino, thus changing the nuclide type. Neither the beta particle nor its associated (anti-)neutrino exist within the nucleus prior to beta decay, but are created in the decay process. By this process, unstable atoms obtain a more stable ratio of protons to neutrons. The probability of a nuclide decaying due to beta and other forms of decay is determined by its nuclear binding energy. The binding energies of all existing nuclides form what is called the nuclear band or valley of stability."

This is a better example than my funny story.

May 27, 2019
Nucleus Acres
Proton and Electron are attracted to each other
Build and live inside their Neutron house
With baby
Whom they call Neutrino
Their Neutron house
Just happens to be
Within a gated community
Called Nucleus
Where virtually
Nobody leaves this gated Nucleus
Nucleus Acres
One day
This Neutron house
Moves out of this Nucleus community
Is seen sliding down this road at a fast clip
Within several minutes
This Neutron house begins to fall apart
Called Beta-decay
Or Beta-minus-decay
As their Neutron house is falling apart
Mr Proton and Mrs Electron with baby Neutrino are set free
As this proton electron neutrino are set free
Emerge into this universe
Pristine electrons neutrinos and protons
Is said this electron hath this Yotta span of life
Not remotely so
Every neutron falls apart
Returns to this vacuum it pristine protonic family
Eight fold in oxygen there exist this family
Waiting for this gated community
This neutrons pristine family to fall apart
Nucleus Acres

May 27, 2019
...some hard facts, that an electron & a proton admixture do not a NEUTRON make, yeah, it makes hydrogen, sorry to have to burst your Pop-Cosmology fantasy using very ordinary data from the PC.

Your PC should have also picked up that your scenario would only occur outside of an atom. Typically, Beta + occurs WITHIN an atom where there is a major proton/neutron imbalance.

May 27, 2019
Bremsstrahlung Radiation

Braking Deceleration radiation
Electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle
When deflected by another charged particle
An electron by an atomic nucleus
The moving particle loses kinetic energy converted into radiation

Synchrotron Radiation

Magneto Bremsstrahlung radiation
Is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially
When they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity
Is produced in synchrotrons using bending magnets
Synchrotron radiation by fast electrons moving through magnetic fields
Synchrotron radiation has a characteristic polarization and frequencies generated
Range over the entire electromagnetic spectrum called Continuum Radiation

It appears Bremsstrahlung Radiation and Synchrotron Radiation
Are variations of electrons moving in this protons electric and magnetic field

May 27, 2019
And after the happy family - the potent proton, scrumptious electron and their baby Neutrino have been ejected from the Neutron house which they had so carefully built before its Beta (minus) Decay event (whose duration of its decay is still questioned), that beta - decay of a neutron transforms it into a proton by the emission of an electron accompanied by an antineutrino. (How did baby Neutrino turn into an antiNeutrino, only Heaven knows).
So the Neutron decays into a Proton after the scrumptious Electron has left, taking their baby who is now an antineutrino. And the plot thickens.

May 27, 2019
-contd-
And then, the transitions begin:

After the Beta-minus-decay has completed and a new Proton has emerged comes the Beta-Plus-Decay
" conversely, a proton is converted into a neutron by the emission of a positron (positron emission) with a neutrino, thus changing the nuclide type. Neither the beta particle nor its associated (anti-)neutrino exist within the nucleus prior to beta decay, but are created in the decay process. (CREATION)
By this process, unstable atoms obtain a more stable ratio of protons to neutrons. The probability of a nuclide decaying due to beta and other forms of decay is determined by its nuclear binding energy. The binding energies of all existing nuclides form what is called the nuclear band or valley of stability."
But what has happened to the scrumptious Ellie Electron?

May 27, 2019
Pristine particles anew

This is this puzzle, SEU
For every atomic particle that exists and those we do not know exist yet
are created from this proton
every time a photon is reflected in an electron
a pristine photon of exactly the same energy
is created in this electrons electric magnetic field
a pristine photon anew
for all the particles are continuously created anew in this proton
pristine particles
for even this proton
every time it emerges out this neutron
it emerges a pristine proton anew
It matters not what you choose
for every pion
that enters this atmosphere
a pristine muon anew emerges
atoms
atomic particles
electrons
neutrons
protons
neutrinos
it matters not
for all these particle go now where near stars
these particles go nowhere near supernovas
go nowhere near event horizons
for it matters not to this proton and its scrumptious electron
even when this proton is all alone in this infinite vacuous vacuum
it matters not
All these are created pristine particles anew

May 27, 2019
Pristine particles anew

This is this puzzle, SEU
For every atomic particle that exists and those we do not know exist yet
are created from this proton
for even this proton
every time it emerges out this neutron
it emerges a pristine proton anew
It matters not what you choose
for every pion
that enters this atmosphere
a pristine muon anew emerges
atoms
atomic particles
electrons
neutrons
protons
neutrinos
it matters not
for all these particle go now where near stars
these particles go nowhere near supernovas
go nowhere near event horizons
for it matters not to this proton and its scrumptious electron
even when this proton is all alone in this infinite vacuous vacuum
it matters not
All these are created pristine particles anew
says granville

Oh my!! Yes, this is continuous Creation of the sort that cannot be defiled nor renounced. It is the LAW and it is beautiful. And it is an observable Creation that is truly undeniable.

Thank you, granville.

May 27, 2019
@granville

Do you realise what you have done, my friend??
You have discovered that which even top Scientists could not do. YOU have discovered the secret of PERPETUAL MOTION, which is the circular creativity that is endowed unto the PROTON. The Proton TRANSFORMS BACK AND FORTH in a never-ending cycle that is the stuff of Creation.
The FIRST Creation was metaphysical. From then on, it was the PROTON who did the heavy work of transforming Matter to Energy, and Energy to Matter in an endless cycle.
@granville. Please make a copy of this phorum and take it to your University's Physics Department. Show them what you have accomplished. I want YOU to be given credit for this discovery, granville. Do it on the morrow if you will.

May 27, 2019
Circular creativity Pristine particles anew
@granville
Do you realise what you have done, my friend??
You have discovered that which even top Scientists could not do. YOU have discovered the secret of PERPETUAL MOTION, which is the circular creativity that is endowed unto the PROTON. The Proton TRANSFORMS BACK AND FORTH in a never-ending cycle that is the stuff of Creation.
The FIRST Creation was metaphysical. From then on, it was the PROTON who did the heavy work of transforming Matter to Energy, and Energy to Matter in an endless cycle.
@granville. Please make a copy of this phorum and take it to your University's Physics Department. Show them what you have accomplished. I want YOU to be given credit for this discovery, granville. Do it on the morrow if you will.

SEU
As this greatest university in this world exists
not minutes drive
for in these Shires of Cambridgeshire
Cambridge colleges are steeped this in this history

Circular creativity Pristine particles anew!

May 27, 2019
Circular creativity Pristine particles anew
@granville
Do you realise what you have done, my friend??
You have discovered that which even top Scientists could not do. YOU have discovered the secret of PERPETUAL MOTION, which is the circular creativity that is endowed unto the PROTON. The Proton TRANSFORMS BACK AND FORTH in a never-ending cycle that is the stuff of Creation.
The FIRST Creation was metaphysical. From then on, it was the PROTON who did the heavy work of transforming Matter to Energy, and Energy to Matter in an endless cycle.

SEU
As this greatest university in this world exists
not minutes drive
for in these Shires of Cambridgeshire
Cambridge colleges are steeped this in this history

Circular creativity Pristine particles anew!
says granville

Are you saying that Cambridge is already aware of the Proton as the proverbial Perpetual Motion machine? The Proton remains a Proton even under the guise of a Neutron. Fascinating.

May 27, 2019
Well granville, this has been a very interesting morning. However, I must fly - literally.
I will return to the phorums in 3 days time.

May 27, 2019
or conversely a proton is converted into a neutron by the emission of a positron (positron emission) with a neutrino
.....so what happens if an electron sort of meanders into the vicinity? Does the proton sort of capture it & create hydrogen?

Explain why it is much easier in terms of PROBABILITY, that a proton will attract & capture an electron & a neutrino, already traveling almost at lightspeed, & then at the same exact instant circumventing the higher PROBABILITY of creating hydrogen?

You are not considering the immensely high probability that a neutrino can easily pass through the entire mass of our Sun & never hit a thing, but you expect that neutrino will always manage to find some poor widowed proton (a hydrogen nucleus) to mate up with?

How will a ghosty neutrino particle that is known to pass unobstructed from the interior of the Sun create the "baby" to create the abundance of BOUND neutrons found in atoms?

May 28, 2019
....so what happens if an electron sort of meanders into the vicinity? Does the proton sort of capture it & create hydrogen?

Explain why it is much easier in terms of PROBABILITY, that a proton will attract & capture an electron & a neutrino, already traveling almost at lightspeed, & then at the same exact instant circumventing the higher PROBABILITY of creating hydrogen?

You are not considering the immensely high probability that a neutrino can easily pass through the entire mass of our Sun & never hit a thing, but you expect that neutrino will always manage to find some poor widowed proton (a hydrogen nucleus) to mate up with?

How will a ghosty neutrino particle that is known to pass unobstructed from the interior of the Sun create the "baby" to create the abundance of BOUND neutrons found in atoms?


Lol. You really are clueless!

May 28, 2019
For To Detect These Neutrinos Means Hindering These Neutrinos

The Reblogging of SEUs blogged insight
How will a ghosty neutrino particle that is known to pass unobstructed from the interior of the Sun create the "baby" to create the abundance of BOUND neutrons found in atoms?

Known to pass unobstructed from the interior of the Sun
How When These Neutrinos
Are proposed to pass through unhindered
Through this sun
Then through this earth
Continuing unhindered through all these stars in this galaxy till they reach the next galaxy

Benni, think about it
A neutrino passes through this matter occupying this vacuum Unhindered
How
Unhindered means we cannot detect these neutrinos passing through
Unhindered means we do not know these neutrinos are passing through
Because
For to detect these neutrinos means hindering these neutrinos

RNP
May 28, 2019
@Benni

Explain why it is much easier in terms of PROBABILITY, that a proton will attract & capture an
electron & a neutrino, already traveling almost at lightspeed, & then at the same exact instant
circumventing the higher PROBABILITY of creating hydrogen?


Well Benni, this is an improvement! You are actually asking sensible questions!

Fisrtly, electron capture does not involve the capture of a neutrino,. Rather, it involves the emission of an ANTI-neutrino.

Secondly, electron capture happens either within an atomic nucleus (where it is obviously impossible to create Hydrogen) or at energies far too high for a Hydrogen atom to form or be stable.

See the link below if you really want to know more;
https://en.wikipe..._capture

Keep asking question Benni. You may actually learn something.

May 28, 2019
Errr, actually electron capture requires the emission of a neutrino, not an antineutrino. One lepton in, one out. It's ordinary neutron decay that makes antineutrinos; one lepton out, one antilepton out. Gotta balance the books; leptons are conserved as far as we know.

Of course @Benni got it wrong too; the proton wouldn't have to capture a neutrino but an antineutrino. One lepton in, one antilepton in- if this ever happened.

RNP
May 28, 2019
Hi Da Shneib
Yep, just realised my mistake, but you beat me to it.

Mea Culpa.

May 28, 2019
Fisrtly, electron capture does not involve the capture of a neutrino
.....it better involve the capture of a neutrino, if it doesn't a neutron will never come to fruition. And by the way, the only difference, as I have already pointed out earlier, between a neutrino & anti-neutrino is it's spin configuration, otherwise it is EXACTLY the same particle........the same principle for electrons.

Secondly, electron capture happens either within an atomic nucleus (where it is obviously impossible to create Hydrogen) or at energies far too high for a Hydrogen atom to form or be stable.
.......well then mister genius of a freelance journalist, how much MORE unlikely it must be to form a neutron under the same conditions using three particles plus a gamma ray, instead of just two particles that create a far less complicated configuration of a hydrogen atom, what's that PROBABILITY?

RNP
May 28, 2019
@Benni
Read the reference I gave you. You will see that you are wrong.

May 28, 2019
@Benni
Read the reference I gave you. You will see that you are wrong.


You are not addressing the matter of: Well then mister genius of a freelance journalist, how much MORE unlikely it must be to form a neutron under the same conditions using three particles plus a gamma ray, instead of just two particles that create a far less complicated configuration of a hydrogen atom, what's that PROBABILITY?

Forget expecting Benni to clickbait on your stupid links & wind up spending hours of my time searching the link for your frivolous point, Copy & Paste the point in the link you want to make but don't expect ME to do the searching, otherwise I don't waste my time.

May 28, 2019
Fisrtly, electron capture does not involve the capture of a neutrino
.....it better involve the capture of a neutrino, if it doesn't a neutron will never come to fruition. And by the way, the only difference, as I have already pointed out earlier, between a neutrino & anti-neutrino is it's spin configuration, otherwise it is EXACTLY the same particle........the same principle for electrons.


Oh dear! Still with the astonishing ignorance! The neutrino doesn't exist until the decay of a w-boson. You really need to start to understand nuclear physics, as your current level of knowledge is pitiful, and below high school level.

May 28, 2019
Unhindered means we cannot detect these neutrinos passing through
Unhindered means we do not know these neutrinos are passing through
Because
For to detect these neutrinos means hindering these neutrinos
.....maybe you know where in someone's lab we can find bottles of HINDERED neutrinos?

May 28, 2019
Because the neutron is more massive than the proton, there is a weak channel to decay. When this happens, the neutron emits a W- particle which quickly decays into an electron and an antineutrino. Because the neutron is more massive than the proton, no reverse channel exists.

Within the nucleus of an atom which has the right energy to decay, a proton can decay into a neutron by the weak interaction, but only if it reduces the mass of the nucleus overall. Otherwise protons do not decay spontaneously.

Of course someone with a "nucular engineering degree" from the University of Mommy wouldn't know that.

May 28, 2019
Within the nucleus of an atom which has the right energy to decay, a proton can decay into a neutron by the weak interaction, but only if it reduces the mass of the nucleus overall. Otherwise protons do not decay spontaneously. Of course someone with a "nucular engineering degree"....
.....this is pure "nucular" psycho-babble, you don't know what you're talking about, it isn't possible to convert a proton into a neutron via wishful thinking.

May 28, 2019
Meanwhile, back on Earth instead of Planet Mommy: https://en.wikipe...ssium-40

Potassium-40 is a rare example of an isotope that undergoes both types of beta decay. About 89.28% of the time, it decays to calcium-40 (40Ca) with emission of a beta particle (β−, an electron) with a maximum energy of 1.31 MeV and an antineutrino. About 10.72% of the time it decays to argon-40 (40Ar) by electron capture (EC), with the emission of a neutrino and then a 1.460 MeV gamma ray. The radioactive decay of this particular isotope explains the large abundance of argon (nearly 1%) in the earth's atmosphere, as well as its abundance compared to 36Ar. Very rarely (0.001% of the time) it will decay to 40Ar by emitting a positron (β+) and a neutrino.

May 28, 2019
.....this is pure "nucular" psycho-babble, you don't know what you're talking about, it isn't possible to convert a proton into a neutron via wishful thinking.


No, it is observed science, you ignorant clown.

May 28, 2019
β-decay Radioactive decay

Nuclear physics
Beta decay β-decay is radioactive decay in which a beta ray electron or positron is emitted from an atomic nucleus

Beta decay of a neutron transforms it into a proton by the emission of an electron and antineutrino
Conversely
Beta decay of a proton is converted into a neutron by the emission of a positron and neutrino

Neither electron or positron nor neutrino or anti-neutrino exist within the nucleus prior to beta decay, but created in the decay process

Electron capture
Where the proton in the nucleus of an electrically neutral atom
Absorbs an inner atomic electron from the K or L electron shell
Changes a nuclear proton to a neutron
Simultaneously causes the emission of an positron and neutrino.
Following capture of an inner electron from the atom
An outer electron replaces the electron that was captured
Where one or more X-ray photons are emitted

This proton captured electron has to have surplus kinetic energy to equal this deficit

May 28, 2019
This proton loses a positron
Gains an electron
Loses a neutrino
Ending up lighter than this neutron

May 28, 2019
@Benni it must suck to be wrong all the time.

May 28, 2019
A lower energy state is usually the status quoi

As is this case with this proton
This proton loses a positron
Gains an electron
Loses a neutrino
Ending up lighter than this neutron

Actually
Unless there are some boffins out there
By the time this proton has fully finished
Converting to a neutron
This proton is on a diet of less than fresh air
Because
When you start topping up this size zero diet

This proton is a lighter proton after all this snacking
What with losing positrons, neutrinos, x-rays
Where it is going to get this nourishment
From its size zero diet is any ones guess
As once you start digging into these nuclear forces

This proton by the time its shown this door
Is going to be a famished proton

Either that, it's going to be the skinniest neutron since size zero diets

May 28, 2019
Bottles of HINDERED neutrinos
Unhindered means we cannot detect these neutrinos passing through
Unhindered means we do not know these neutrinos are passing through
Because
For to detect these neutrinos means hindering these neutrinos
.....maybe you know where in someone's lab we can find bottles of HINDERED neutrinos?

Well Benni
You said it
I never knew there were bottles of hindered neutrinos
Do they come in three favours
Strawberry and Cream with Vanilla toppings will do fine!

May 28, 2019
Bottles of HINDERED neutrinos

Unhindered means we cannot detect these neutrinos passing through
Unhindered means we do not know these neutrinos are passing through
Because
For to detect these neutrinos means hindering these neutrinos
.....maybe you know where in someone's lab we can find bottles of HINDERED neutrinos?

Well Benni
You said it
I never knew there were bottles of hindered neutrinos
Do they come in three favours
Strawberry and Cream with Vanilla toppings will do fine!
.....you're thinking of that hypothetical particle called a quark that's never been isolated.

My point about bottled neutrinos is the fact that to have an admixture of the necessary effluents of neutron beta decay, four things are needed in isolation. We need to be able to sprinkle a carefully controlled quantity of neutrinos across a proton/electron beam arc-gap, then MAYBE that can cause a reaction to come up with a neutron that lasts 14.7 minutes?

May 28, 2019
Bottles of HINDERED neutrinos

How many bottles
Of hindered neutrinos
Are counted
Hindering their exit
From this neutron
For every hindered neutrino
Passing out this neutron
Untold trillions remain uncounted
For who said the anti-neutrino
That is said it dissipate is this only one
When neutrinos pass unhindered
Even through neutrons

May 28, 2019
Even through neutrons
......ghostly little beasties are they not? Can't even undergo the electron equivalent of K-capture.

Well then there goes the theory I was trying to help the Pop-Cosmology crowd with in their search for the eternal neutron.

Gosh, I have this nice theory all worked out that by sprinkling a few hindered neutrinos into a collider beam composed of electrons & protons sparking across a gap to create gamma rays, that we then could make our own free neutrons without having to resort to an expensive fission reactor to get them, but neither schniebo & jonesy will give up any of their stash of hindered neutrinos? GranDy, I take it you don't have any? Maybe you know somebody at Oxford?

May 29, 2019
IN A LAND FAR AWAY IS SUPER KAMIOKANDE

In this land of these dragons
Deep underground
Covered in light sensors
50 thousand tons
Of purified water
In this sea of neutrinos
(3x10+64) neutrinos a month
For out of this space
These infinite neutrinos
Pass this purified water
For every month
(3x10+64) neutrinos a month
For in this month
2 single neutrinos are counted
That is out of this infinite number
Just two single neutrinos shows their face

The shear nerve of this assertion
That when a single neutron
Shuffles its mortal coil
We count this single neutrino

For those who profess
To be this protectorate of this science
Please do tell
How!
How do we know this single neutron creates a single neutrino?
When we only detect
2 neutrinos, in (3x10+64) neutrinos a month

May 29, 2019
My point about bottled neutrinos is the fact that to have an admixture of the necessary effluents of neutron beta decay, four things are needed in isolation. We need to be able to sprinkle a carefully controlled quantity of neutrinos across a proton/electron beam arc-gap, then MAYBE that can cause a reaction to come up with a neutron that lasts 14.7 minutes?


My God, you are stupid!

May 29, 2019
A NEUTRINO IS AN ENERGY LEVEL IN FLIGHT

IT WAS SAID
This neutrino
as it changes energy levels
in flight
this favourite P.W discussion
concerning these neutrinos
changing into these tau electron muon neutrinos
changing these flavours in flight
for these P.W boffins would wax lyrical
that neutrinos cannot change flavour in flight
because neutrinos cannot change state at this speed of light
until
it was pointed out
there is one and one only neutrino
changing energy levels in flight
this sea change
meant these neutrinos could change flavours in flight
because
flavours are energy levels as there is only one neutrino
tau electron muon neutrino
each flavour an energy level
Because
changing flavours in flight
for these neutrinos that are emitted
are not the neutrinos that arrive
because
Neutrinos change energy levels in flight

so from this Lord's Prayer
FOR WHAT YOU ARE TO RECEIVE IS NOT WHAT YOU ACTUALY RECEIVE
courtesy of neutrinos changing energy levels in flight

May 30, 2019
@Benni

Re Neutron-Proton-Neutron-Proton-Neutron-Proton etc

There are 2 types of radioactive decay. 1) Beta MINUS Decay, and 2) Beta Plus Decay. (Beta-Decay or Beta+Decay). The Beta minus Decay (1) is where the Neutron, after decaying transforms into the Proton.
The Beta PLUS Decay (2) is where the Proton transforms back into a Neutron.

The Proton is a transformable particle. It can transform back and forth from a Neutron phase to a Proton phase over and over, due to its ability to change into a Neutron while remaining a Proton. The Proton is like a Chameleon that changes its colours/spots but still remains a Chameleon, or in this case - a Proton.

-contd-

May 30, 2019
-contd-
@Benni
The differences between the Neutron beta MINUS decay phase and the Beta PLUS Decay is that after the Decay of the Neutron, the emerging Proton also loses an Electron and an antiNeutrino - while the Proton phase GAINS an Electron while ejecting a Positron.
While the Proton is in its Neutron phase, it is mated with an Electron and begets a Neutrino. As long as the Neutron that houses the Proton and Electron in its concurrent Neutron phase, that Neutron MUST be housed inside an Atomic Nucleus. If the Neutron is ejected from the Nucleus, it then goes into decaying mode, where after a certain amount of minutes, the Beta minus decay is complete and the transformation into a Proton phase takes over, while the Electron and an antineutrino are ejected.
The the Proton later gains an Electron which changes the Proton into a Neutron inside an Atomic Nucleus.

***I may have omitted a few things in this scenario, so feel free to add anything that I may have forgotten.

May 30, 2019
the Beta minus decay is complete and the transformation into a Proton phase takes over, while the Electron and an antineutrino are ejected.

The the Proton later gains an Electron which changes the Proton into a Neutron inside an Atomic Nucleus.
.......a proton & electron are not enough mass, there is the neutrino as well. It's not like protons & electrons just sort of carry a bit of excess baggage whereby an AS NEEDED neutrino appears from nowhere to create a neutron, plus there is also a specific wavelength gamma ray that must be included in this mix and if that gamma ray at that wavelength doesn't show up all bets are still off.

This is Inverse Beta Decay......alias electron capture, a very rare occurrence that almost never happens due to the extra-ordinarily high improbability that an electron orbital can ever exist so close to the proximity of an atomic nucleus that it can undergo capture.

This is not high school physics. those who would say so never took it.

May 30, 2019
^^^^^It is well beyond your ability to understand, so why not give up? Beta-plus decay is an observed fact. Hence PET scans, hence K/Ar dating. Et cetera.

May 30, 2019
^^^^^It is well beyond your ability to understand, so why not give up? Beta-plus decay is an observed fact. Hence PET scans, hence K/Ar dating. Et cetera.
says Castrovagina

To whom are you directing your accusations? You name no names, so that I can only suspect that you are on another tirade of insults. Kindly be more specific as to whom it is you are referring that should "give up".
And yes, we know all about the PET scans, etc. Household words.

May 30, 2019
^^^^^It is well beyond your ability to understand, so why not give up? Beta-plus decay is an observed fact. Hence PET scans, hence K/Ar dating. Et cetera.
.........you couldn't even get right what the discussion was about. The reason you didn't get it right was because ELECTRON CAPTURE was never one of those high school physics topics, Inverse Beta Decay.

May 30, 2019
^^^^^It is well beyond your ability to understand, so why not give up? Beta-plus decay is an observed fact. Hence PET scans, hence K/Ar dating. Et cetera.
.........you couldn't even get right what the discussion was about. The reason you didn't get it right was because ELECTRON CAPTURE was never one of those high school physics topics, Inverse Beta Decay.


We weren't talking only about electron capture, dumbo. We were talking about a proton turning into a neutron in beta-plus decay. AKA positron emission. You said it couldn't happen. It most certainly does.

May 30, 2019
To whom are you directing your accusations? You name no names, so that I can only suspect that you are on another tirade of insults. Kindly be more specific as to whom it is you are referring that should "give up".
And yes, we know all about the PET scans, etc. Household words.


Who do you think, Einstein? The ^^^^ pointing to the post above mine should be a clue.

May 30, 2019
@Benni says:
".....so what happens if an electron sort of meanders into the vicinity? Does the proton sort of capture it & create hydrogen?

Explain why it is much easier in terms of PROBABILITY, that a proton will attract & capture an electron & a neutrino, already traveling almost at lightspeed, & then at the same exact instant circumventing the higher PROBABILITY of creating hydrogen? "

When the Proton and the Electron merge together after the Beta+Decay and a Positron was emitted, a Neutrino is created from that latest merger, and the Proton transforms into a Neutron.
In order for an atom of Hydrogen to be created, or any other type of Atom, there are other sub-particles that come into play such as quarks and leptons and Ups and Downs, etc. It isn't just involving the Proton and Electron only, but other sub-particles as well. I believe that it is those sub-sub-particles that determine what type of Atom will be created, such as Gold, Silver, Platinum Atoms, etc.

May 30, 2019
Explain why it is much easier in terms of PROBABILITY, that a proton will attract & capture an electron & a neutrino, already traveling almost at lightspeed, & then at the same exact instant circumventing the higher PROBABILITY of creating hydrogen?
.......just putting it up as a hypothetical for comparison of one Probability to another.

there are other sub-particles that come into play such as quarks and leptons and Ups and Downs, etc. It isn't just involving the Proton and Electron only, but other sub-particles as well.
.....of course, that is why it is erroneous to say a proton can be CONVERTED to a neutron or vice versa.

May 30, 2019
Explain why it is much easier in terms of PROBABILITY, that a proton will attract & capture an electron & a neutrino, already traveling almost at lightspeed, & then at the same exact instant circumventing the higher PROBABILITY of creating hydrogen?
.......just putting it up as a hypothetical for comparison of one Probability to another.

there are other sub-particles that come into play such as quarks and leptons and Ups and Downs, etc. It isn't just involving the Proton and Electron only, but other sub-particles as well.
.....of course, that is why it is erroneous to say a proton can be CONVERTED to a neutron or vice versa.


Wrong.

May 30, 2019
Explain why it is much easier in terms of PROBABILITY, that a proton will attract & capture an electron & a neutrino, already traveling almost at lightspeed, & then at the same exact instant circumventing the higher PROBABILITY of creating hydrogen?
.......just putting it up as a hypothetical for comparison of one Probability to another.

there are other sub-particles that come into play such as quarks and leptons and Ups and Downs, etc. It isn't just involving the Proton and Electron only, but other sub-particles as well.
.....of course, that is why it is erroneous to say a proton can be CONVERTED to a neutron or vice versa.


The Proton isn't 'converted' into a Neutron. It is TRANSFORMED. IOW the Proton is still a Proton, but it becomes a Neutron also. I consider it a "duality" but I can't find anything similar to that process, except for "From many, One". But even that isn't adequate. You might also call it a Transfiguration that is reversible.

May 30, 2019
Explain why it is much easier in terms of PROBABILITY, that a proton will attract & capture an electron & a neutrino, already traveling almost at lightspeed, & then at the same exact instant circumventing the higher PROBABILITY of creating hydrogen?
.......just putting it up as a hypothetical for comparison of one Probability to another.

there are other sub-particles that come into play such as quarks and leptons and Ups and Downs, etc. It isn't just involving the Proton and Electron only, but other sub-particles as well.
.....of course, that is why it is erroneous to say a proton can be CONVERTED to a neutron or vice versa.


Wrong.
says Johnny One-note

Wrong?? What is wrong? WHO is wrong? Did you answer your Anthropology prof in that tone of voice?

May 30, 2019

Wrong?? What is wrong? WHO is wrong? Did you answer your Anthropology prof in that tone of voice?


I didn't study anthropology, shitforbrains. Learn to read, you clown. I replied to the idiot Benni's comment. So who do you think I was saying was wrong? Are you thick? Rhetorical.

May 30, 2019
@Benni says:
".....so what happens if an electron sort of meanders into the vicinity? Does the proton sort of capture it & create hydrogen?

It's already ionized "hydrogen"...


May 30, 2019

Wrong?? What is wrong? WHO is wrong? Did you answer your Anthropology prof in that tone of voice?

I didn't study anthropology, shitforbrains. Learn to read, you clown. I replied to the idiot Benni's comment. So who do you thing I was saying was wrong? Are you thick? Rhetorical.


Of course you studied Anthropology. You said it yourself last year. Then you switched to Astronomy, IIRC. But the point is that you don't name the person you are referring to, and you expect everyone to wonder and guess whom it is that you are addressing. Most folks don't care for guessing games, so I strongly suggest that you 'get with the program' and learn to identify the person whom you are referring to, for the sake of communication. Or did your mama never teach you any good manners?

May 30, 2019
Explain why it is much easier in terms of PROBABILITY, that a proton will attract & capture an electron & a neutrino, already traveling almost at lightspeed, & then at the same exact instant circumventing the higher PROBABILITY of creating hydrogen? "

Obvious much?
When the Proton and the Electron merge together after the Beta+Decay and a Positron was emitted, a Neutrino is created from that latest merger, and the Proton transforms into a Neutron.

Neutrino doesn't occur until Beta - decay cycle is complete.
In order for an atom of Hydrogen to be created, or any other type of Atom, there are other sub-particles that come into play such as quarks and leptons and Ups and Downs, etc.

Ups and Downs ARE quarks... (and there are even more types)
It isn't just involving the Proton and Electron only, but other sub-particles as well. I believe that it is those sub-sub-particles that determine what type of Atom will be created, such as Gold, Silver, Platinum Atoms, etc.

Experimental proof of that?

May 30, 2019

Of course you studied Anthropology. You said it yourself last year. Then you switched to Astronomy, IIRC. But the point is that you don't name the person you are referring to, and you expect everyone to wonder and guess whom it is that you are addressing. Most folks don't care for guessing games, so I strongly suggest that you 'get with the program' and learn to identify the person whom you are referring to, for the sake of communication. Or did your mama never teach you any good manners?


I said no such thing you lying cretin. I have studied it informally, dumbo. Now sod off you uneducated cretin.

May 30, 2019
Explain why it is much easier in terms of PROBABILITY, that a proton will attract & capture an electron & a neutrino, already traveling almost....
When the Proton and the Electron merge together after the Beta+Decay and a Positron was emitted, a Neutrino is created from that latest merger, and the Proton transforms into a Neutron.

Neutrino doesn't occur until Beta - decay cycle is complete.
In order for an atom of Hydrogen to be created, or any other type of Atom, there are other sub-particles that come into play such as quarks and leptons and Ups and Downs, etc.

Ups and Downs ARE quarks... (and there are even more types)
It isn't just involving the Proton and Electron only, but other sub-particles as well. I believe that it is those sub-sub-particles that determine what type of Atom will be created, such as Gold, Silver, Platinum Atoms, etc.

Experimental proof of that?
says Whyde (the WW1 veteran)

None at the moment.

May 30, 2019

Of course you studied Anthropology. You said it yourself last year. Then you switched to Astronomy, IIRC. But the point is that you don't name the person you are referring to, and you expect everyone to wonder and guess whom it is that you are addressing. Most folks don't care for guessing games, so I strongly suggest that you 'get with the program' and learn to identify the person whom you are referring to, for the sake of communication. Or did your mama never teach you any good manners?


I said no such thing you lying cretin. I have studied it informally, dumbo. Now sod off you uneducated cretin.


So you DID study Anthropology, whether informally or not. Stop lying about it, jonesy. It makes you look stupid as usual.

May 30, 2019
@Benni, granviille, Whyde et al

Recommended reading:
https://dlc.dcccd...elements

May 31, 2019


Experimental proof of that?
says Whyde (the WW1 veteran)

None at the moment.

Just Vietnam... Never even been to Europe.
Your flippancy (and disregard) is telling.

May 31, 2019


Experimental proof of that?
says Whyde (the WW1 veteran)

None at the moment.

Just Vietnam... Never even been to Europe.
Your flippancy (and disregard) is telling.
says Whyde

It was in answer to your own flippancy when you replied with "You're welcome" with no other explanation after I commended the veterans for their service to the US. The veterans I was referring to had actually been in active military service during WW2 and it was their story for which the article had been written. IIRC, it is Mahoney who is "last man standing".
Now don't get me wrong. I am not belittling you for not being a veteran of WW2. Your service to your nation was just as important as the 4 men in the picture/article.

May 31, 2019

So you DID study Anthropology, whether informally or not. Stop lying about it, jonesy. It makes you look stupid as usual.


You are the one that looks stupid, alien lizard boy. How come I know far more about physics than you or the idiot Benni? Hmmm? By guesswork? By being as dumb as you and him?

May 31, 2019
So you DID study Anthropology, whether informally or not. Stop lying about it, jonesy. It makes you look stupid as usual.


You are the one that looks stupid, alien lizard boy. How come I know far more about physics than you or the idiot Benni? Hmmm? By guesswork? By being as dumb as you and him?
......well then mister Anthropologist, you imagine you know so much about Nuclear Physics, why then is it still so incomprehensible for you to grasp the fact that Neutron Beta Decay rate rate is 14.7 minutes?

May 31, 2019
.....well then mister Anthropologist, you imagine you know so much about Nuclear Physics, why then is it still so incomprehensible for you to grasp the fact that Neutron Beta Decay rate rate is 14.7 minutes?


Because it isn't, you uneducated clown. That is the mean lifetime, as has been pointed out countless times. It is not our fault that you are too thick to understand this, janitor boy.

May 31, 2019
@Benni says:
".....so what happens if an electron sort of meanders into the vicinity? Does the proton sort of capture it & create hydrogen?

It's already ionized "hydrogen"...
.........no it isn't, it's simply a PROTON.

This convoluted circular reasoning about a proton being an ionized hydrogen atom is pure Pop-Cosmology psycho-babble. Ionization is an imbalance of protons to neutrons within an element, a proton is not an ELEMENT.

You get an ionized hydrogen atom when an anion is created in which case there are two electron orbitals about the proton nucleus, this giving rise to a negatively charged atom as opposed to a positively charged one due to the imbalance of electrons.


May 31, 2019
Ionization is an imbalance of protons to neutrons
......should have said an imbalance of protons to electrons within an eelement.

....... a proton is not an ELEMENT.

May 31, 2019
@Benni says:
".....so what happens if an electron sort of meanders into the vicinity? Does the proton sort of capture it & create hydrogen?

It's already ionized "hydrogen"...
.........no it isn't, it's simply a PROTON.

This convoluted circular reasoning about a proton being an ionized hydrogen atom is pure Pop-Cosmology psycho-babble. Ionization is an imbalance of protons to neutrons within an element, a proton is not an ELEMENT.

You get an ionized hydrogen atom when an anion is created in which case there are two electron orbitals about the proton nucleus, this giving rise to a negatively charged atom as opposed to a positively charged one due to the imbalance of electrons.



Christ you are thick! Who ties your shoelaces of a morning? WTF do you think H+ is, you idiot?

May 31, 2019
@Benni says:
".....so what happens if an electron sort of meanders into the vicinity? Does the proton sort of capture it & create hydrogen?

It's already ionized "hydrogen"...
.........no it isn't, it's simply a PROTON.

This convoluted circular reasoning about a proton being an ionized hydrogen atom is pure Pop-Cosmology psycho-babble. Ionization is an imbalance of protons to neutrons within an element, a proton is not an ELEMENT.

You get an ionized hydrogen atom when an anion is created in which case there are two electron orbitals about the proton nucleus, this giving rise to a negatively charged atom as opposed to a positively charged one due to the imbalance of electrons.

But it IS an element, albeit the most basic...
NOUN
an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.See also cation, anion.
"hydrogen ions" · [more]

May 31, 2019

So you DID study Anthropology, whether informally or not. Stop lying about it, jonesy. It makes you look stupid as usual.


You are the one that looks stupid, alien lizard boy. How come I know far more about physics than you or the idiot Benni? Hmmm? By guesswork? By being as dumb as you and him?
says the Vagina

No no, jonesy. It is Schneib who is the 'alien mind-reading lizard'. Do try to remember that so that you will no longer mistake me for Schneib.

The truth is, jonesy, that you don't use your supposed vast knowledge of science to show it off as Schneib does. You would get so much more attention if you did. But instead, you forget to tell us what you KNOW, and then proceed with the ad hominem and silly insults that make no sense at all.
I have already made a list of your stupid sayings in another past phorum. But you refuse to LEARN.
If you are truly serious about Science, then show it instead of acting the part of the head clown of Clown University. OK?

May 31, 2019
@Benni

https://astro.unl...els.html

Hydrogen Atom
A Hydrogen atom consists of a proton and an electron which are "bound" together – the proton (positive charge) and electron (negative charge) stay together and continually interact with each other. If the electron escapes, the Hydrogen atom (now a single proton) is positively ionized. Similarly, the Hydrogen atom can sometimes bind another electron to it. Such a Hydrogen atom is negatively ionized. In astronomy, the former kind of ionization is much more common.
(Hydrogen is a lightweight Atom)
In heavier atoms, the proton is replaced with a mixture of protons and neutrons collectively called the nucleus. The nucleus of the Hydrogen atom is just one proton. Helium, on the other hand, has two protons and two neutrons for a total of four nucleons (a "nucleon" is a general term for particles which are either a proton or neutron).
-contd-

May 31, 2019
-contd-
@Benni

A Hydrogen atom is an electron and proton bound by the electromagnetic force (an attractive force between oppositely charged particles). Because the electron is so much less massive than protons, early physicists visualized the electron as being like a tiny planet which orbited the proton which acted like a tiny sun. Though this view has the advantage of being easy to visualize, it is just an approximate physical representation.
A more physical view of the Hydrogen atom is one where the electron is not seen as orbiting the proton like a planet around a sun, but exists as a diffuse cloud surrounding the nucleus. Only by measuring its location can one know where the electron is (or rather was, as once the electron's position is measured it moves to a different place). The region where the electron is probably located is called the "electron cloud".

May 31, 2019

If you are truly serious about Science, then show it instead of acting the part of the head clown of Clown University. OK?


I've forgotten more about science than you'll ever know, you freak.

May 31, 2019
An Elementary particle

In particle physics
An elementary particle
Is a particle with no sub structure
Not composed of other particles
Particles currently thought to be elementary
Include the electrons, neutrinos
A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a composite particle

Consequently
a proton is not a positively charged hydrogen atom
because
when hydrogen loses its electron
this positive hydrogen is no longer hydrogen
because
This hydrogen is now a Proton

May 31, 2019

If you are truly serious about Science, then show it instead of acting the part of the head clown of Clown University. OK?


I've forgotten more about science than you'll ever know, you freak.


OK Now I've got it. You don't talk much science because you've forgotten so much of it. You said it yourself, jonesybonesy
Graduated from Clown University, did ya? I'll wager that you majored in balloon-making and how to use that gas tank thingy to inflate your balloons. Is that right? And your textbooks consisted of How To Use the Best Curse Words to Your Advantage.

May 31, 2019
Jonesy's Infamous Quote
jonesy> I've forgotten more about science than you'll ever know, you freak.

Jonesy has forgotten more science than you'll ever know

May 31, 2019
An Elementary particle

In particle physics
An elementary particle
Is a particle with no sub structure
Not composed of other particles
Particles currently thought to be elementary
Include the electrons, neutrinos
A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a composite particle

Consequently
a proton is not a positively charged hydrogen atom
because
when hydrogen loses its electron
this positive hydrogen is no longer hydrogen
because
This hydrogen is now a Proton
says granville

Absolutely. When the Potent Proton loses its mate, the scrumptious Ellie Electron, he loses his better half and becomes sad and lonely (similar to jonesybonesy) and forgetful. He can no longer claim the title of Sir Hydrogen and is reduced to the existence of a woe begotten loveless particle. For it is written that true love exists in the house of the rising Hydrogen as long as Sir Proton has, as his lifelong mate, the scrumptious Ellie. But Ellie hath a wandering eye.

May 31, 2019

If you are truly serious about Science, then show it instead of acting the part of the head clown of Clown University. OK?


I've forgotten more about science than you'll ever know, you freak.


OK Now I've got it. You don't talk much science because you've forgotten so much of it. You said it yourself, jonesybonesy
Graduated from Clown University, did ya? I'll wager that you majored in balloon-making and how to use that gas tank thingy to inflate your balloons. Is that right? And your textbooks consisted of How To Use the Best Curse Words to Your Advantage.


Sod off, lizard boy.

May 31, 2019
This stuff is hilarious.

Yes, ionized hydrogen is protons.

No, proton decay doesn't emit antineutrinos, nor absorb them, nor absorb neutrinos. Cranks can't count.

Here's a nice PDE for @Benni to provide a solution for:

∂²Ψ/∂x² + ∂²Ψ/∂y² + ∂²Ψ/∂z² = ?

May 31, 2019
"Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around us. They come in different kinds, called elements, but each atom shares certain characteristics in common. All atoms have a dense central core called the atomic nucleus. Forming the nucleus are two kinds of particles: protons, which have a positive electrical charge, and neutrons, which have no charge. All atoms have at least one proton in their core, and the number of protons determines which kind of element an atom is. For example, an oxygen atom has 8 protons. If you were somehow able to change the proton number of this atom to 7, even if everything else remained the same, it would no longer be an oxygen atom, it would be nitrogen. For this reason, we list the different elements by their proton, or atomic, number. The periodic table of elements is a chart of all of the elements that have been discovered so far, in order by their atomic number."

May 31, 2019

Absolutely. When the Potent Proton loses its mate, the scrumptious Ellie Electron, he loses his better half and becomes sad and lonely (similar to jonesybonesy) and forgetful. He can no longer claim the title of Sir Hydrogen and is reduced to the existence of a woe begotten loveless particle. For it is written that true love exists in the house of the rising Hydrogen as long as Sir Proton has, as his lifelong mate, the scrumptious Ellie. But Ellie hath a wandering eye.


Wrong. What is H+, idiots?
http://astronomy....Hydrogen

May 31, 2019
"In addition to protons and neutrons, all atoms have electrons, negatively charged particles that move around in the space surrounding the positively-charged nuclear core. Electrons are usually depicted in drawings as much smaller than protons or neutrons because their mass is so much smaller. In fact, electron mass is so small that it is not counted in an atom's mass. However, the charge strength of a single electron is equal to that of a single proton, and despite their small mass, electrons are important for balancing the charge of an atom. Unless specifically stated otherwise, atoms always have the same number of electrons as protons; therefore, you can find the electron number by looking at the atomic number. But unlike protons, the number of electrons can and does change without affecting the kind of element an atom is!"

-contd-

May 31, 2019


Here's a nice PDE for @Benni to provide a solution for:

∂²Ψ/∂x² + ∂²Ψ/∂y² + ∂²Ψ/∂z² = ?


Ahhh, the guy with the feline!

May 31, 2019
What you posted proves you wrong, as usual, @SEU. I'm sure @Castro can tell you how.

May 31, 2019
"We now know how to find the number of protons and the number of electrons for a given atom, but what about neutrons? How many neutrons do atoms of a given element have? It is NOT always the same as the number of protons and electrons. For example, hydrogen has one proton and one electron, but it doesn't have any neutrons at all! We determine this by looking at the atomic mass. Even though an atom is so small it would take almost a million for you to see even a tiny dot on your computer screen, each tiny atom definitely has mass and occupies space. This mass comes from the nucleus. Each proton and neutron has about the same amount of mass, measured in daltons, or atomic mass units (amus). Because the unit of measure is defined by one proton, 1 proton = 1 neutron = 1 dalton = 1 amu. Electrons do have some mass, but it is almost 2000 times less than the mass of a proton. "

May 31, 2019
"There aren't enough electrons in any of the atoms we know about to affect the total mass; therefore, the total mass is equal to the sum of the protons and the neutrons in an atom.
Because we can find the number of protons and the atomic mass of an atom by looking at its element information in the periodic table, we can calculate the number of neutrons in that atom by subtracting the number of protons from the atomic mass.
When the number of neutrons is different for individual atoms of the same element, each atom is called an isotope. When you read a periodic table, the atomic mass listed is the average atomic mass for all of the isotopes of that element found in nature. For example, carbon has an atomic mass of 12.01 in the periodic table. Carbon can't have 6.01 neutrons because you can't have part of a neutron. The value exceeds 6 because, while most carbon atoms have 6 neutrons, some carbon atoms are found with 7 neutrons and others with 8 neutrons. "

May 31, 2019
The Epitome Of Obfuscation

Ionised hydrogen
Commonly called HII
Is a hydrogen atom that has lost its electron?
And is now positively charged
It is easily detected at optical wavelengths
As it releases a photon
Of wavelength 656.3 nm
When it recaptures an electron and returns to its neutral state

Jonesy speak for hydrogen that has become a proton
"When it recaptures an electron and returns to its neutral state"
but then we have to give jonesy his dues
He is master of this black art, Obfuscation!

May 31, 2019
Why is the lizard posting high school science lessons? Is this a hint that Benni has not reached that level yet, and needs edumacating?

May 31, 2019
A proton's mass is 1836.15267343 times that of an electron with a measurement uncertainty of .0000000011. It's a pure dimensionless ratio; the answer is the same in any units.

May 31, 2019
DaSchneib
DaSchneib> A proton's mass is 1836.15267343 times that of an electron with a measurement uncertainty of .0000000011. It's a pure dimensionless ratio; the answer is the same in any units.

Just think, DaSchneib
If we could measure this speed of light
To the same number of decimal places as this electrons mass ratio
To be able to measure the speed of light
To
8 Decimal Places . . . . . . . .

May 31, 2019
299,792,458 m/s gives nine significant figures.

On Earth.

Cranks can't count.

May 31, 2019
Why is the lizard posting high school science lessons? Is this a hint that Benni has not reached that level yet, and needs edumacating?
says castrovagina

Hmmmm Are you saying that Schneib is posting a science course somewhere in physorg? There's nothing wrong with that, jonesy. Alien mind-reading toads, er, I mean lizards are allowed to pretend to be professors teaching class in physorg. Schneib has done that sort of thing many times in past phorums. So try not to be too upset when someone is teaching class, jonesy. Have some respect. After all, what is posted in physorg, stays in physorg.
Try to learn to spell better,, jonesy

May 31, 2019
Are But
299,792,458 m/s gives nine significant figures.
On Earth.
Cranks can't count.

Whole numbers don't count
Only decimal places

May 31, 2019
DaSchneib

The speed of light to 8 decimal places
10-8
Equals
In a billion years
8 decimal places
10-8 = 9.461x10+16m

May 31, 2019
DaSchneib

If your calculations
Are based on this standard
299792458m/s
After you have travelled across this universe
To planet earth
Only to find you are 9.461x10+16m away from planet earth
After this miscalculation
You have used all your remaining fuel
All alone in this vacuous vacuum
10Lys from planet earth
Because
You forgot, DaSchneib
Those 8 decimal places!

May 31, 2019
Are But
299,792,458 m/s gives nine significant figures.
On Earth.
Cranks can't count.

Whole numbers don't count
Only decimal places
says granville

Really?? Is Schneib still talking about "cranks"? Is the term 'cranks' a part of the science-y jargon/terminology that could earn Schneib a professorship at Harvard? Is the word "cranks" included in scientific papers to be peer reviewed prior to publishing? Could Schneib use the term "cranks" to describe Sir Stephen Hawking CBE or dear old Albert?
From what I've read, the term "cranks" is a clear indication that its user is in the process of Bottoming-Out and must resort to such silly sounding words as cranks.
Perhaps Schneib needs to borrow jonesy's copy of How To Use Curse Words To Your Best Advantage so that some new words can be learnt from it to be used in physorg. Has Schneib considered using M-F?

May 31, 2019
Where the decimal places are depends on the units you use, unless you're talking about a dimensionless constant.

On Earth.

That's why we use dimensionless constants and significant figures.

The speed of light has nine sig-figs.

Cranks can't count.

May 31, 2019
In no universe, DaSchneib
Is the speed of light
299792458m/s

May 31, 2019
SEU
From what I've read, the term "cranks" is a clear indication that its user is in the process of Bottoming-Out and must resort to such silly sounding words as cranks

This is why, SEU
DaSchneib hath morphed to DaSchneib
Because, SEU
DaSchneib's bridge is beckoning
For even as we speak
DaSchneib is sunning himself on the river bank, for to earn his full title

May 31, 2019
In no universe, DaSchneib
Is the speed of light
299792458m/s
Except this one.

On Earth.

May 31, 2019
SEU
From what I've read, the term "cranks" is a clear indication that its user is in the process of Bottoming-Out and must resort to such silly sounding words as cranks

This is why, SEU
DaSchneib hath morphed to DaSchneib
Because, SEU
DaSchneib's bridge is beckoning
For even as we speak
DaSchneib is sunning himself on the river bank, for to earn his full title
says granville

Yes. Schneib hath earned the title of PigHead Troll. His place under the bridge is being vacated by a goat-stealing troll of lesser proportions who did not live up to his qualifications as the former headmaster of a prominent school for boys in the area somewhere near London. That role has been taken over by one more qualified, and who has never used the term "cranks", to his credit.

May 31, 2019
If you ain't got the science you are another troll.

Simple as that.

https://www.youtu...k2yWUGTM

May 31, 2019
Your butt-buddies can't seem to keep science @SEU. You might want to try to keep science on this site. Otherwise you are an obvious troll.

Jun 01, 2019
Travelling This Only Vacuum

In this infinite vacuous vacuum
We call space
We call home
We call our universe
That is occupied
By protons, electrons neutrinos
Electric magnetic gravitational nuclear fields
In this vacuum there exists circular orbits
This mathematical anomaly
This circle
Has an indeterminate number of decimal places
That with increasing decimal places
Our circles become increasingly accurate
More accurate than pi to whole numbers
As pi to whole numbers equals 3
So it is with this speed of light
As this speed of light
With no decimal places
Expressed like pi as a whole number
Like pi = 3
Light = 299792458
That
With an inaccuracy of only 8 decimal places
When
We finally sail this vacuum
1 Billion Light years
Whereas when we step of the bus at Piccadilly Circus
Conversely
When we step of our space ferry at Planet Earth

We Do Not Expect To Walk 10Lys To Our Front Door

Jun 01, 2019
Travelling This Only Vacuum

In this infinite vacuous vacuum
We call space
We call home
We call our universe
That is occupied
By protons, electrons neutrinos
Electric magnetic gravitational nuclear fields
In this vacuum there exists circular orbits
This mathematical anomaly
This circle
Has an indeterminate number of decimal places
That with increasing decimal places
Our circles become increasingly accurate
More accurate than pi to whole numbers
As pi to whole numbers equals 3
So it is with this speed of light
As this speed of light
With no decimal places
Expressed like pi as a whole number
Like pi = 3
Light = 299792458
That
With an inaccuracy of only 8 decimal places
When
We finally sail this vacuum
1 Billion Light years
Whereas when we step of the bus at Piccadilly Circus
Conversely
When we step of our space ferry at Planet Earth

We Do Not Expect To Walk 10Lys To Our Front Door


I, too prefer the decimals rather than whole numbers.

Jun 02, 2019
Your butt-buddies can't seem to keep science @SEU. You might want to try to keep science on this site. Otherwise you are an obvious troll.
Why are you interacting with this turd? That's all its here for, to get a rise. You should know better.

Jun 03, 2019
This Ghost of Canterville

DaSchneib
In no universe, DaSchneib
Is the speed of light
299792458m/s
Except this one.

On Earth.

As all constants are to decimal places, DaSchneib
Except, 299792458
As everyone is enamoured by whole constants
Why not create this speed of light
Because we know, this is not to whole numbers
Why not shorten one second a millionth a second or so
That 29979245m is exactly one second
In this fractionally shortened second

Then all will be peace at Canterville

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