Machine set to see if lithium can help bring fusion to Earth

Machine set to see if lithium can help bring fusion to Earth
View of the LTX-β with the neutral beam injector in yellow. Credit: Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications

Lithium, the light silvery metal used in everything from pharmaceutical applications to batteries that power your smart phone or electric car, could also help harness on Earth the fusion energy that lights the sun and stars. Lithium can maintain the heat and protect the walls inside doughnut-shaped tokamaks that house fusion reactions, and will be used to produce tritium, the hydrogen isotope that will combine with its cousin deuterium to fuel fusion in future reactors.

At the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), researchers have completed a three-year upgrade of the Lithium Tokamak Experiment—now called the Lithium Tokamak Experiment-Beta (LTX-β)—a unique device that will test the ability of the metal to maintain the heat and protect the walls of the now-more-powerful tokamak.

Neutral beam injector

The upgrade, funded by the DOE Office of Science, installed a neutral beam injector—on long-term loan from Tri Alpha Energy, now TAE Technologies—to heat, fuel and increase the density of the . Other improvements include an increase in the magnetic field that confines the plasma, and installation of new lithium systems. The improvements bring conditions in the experiment closer to those in a fusion reactor, said Dick Majeski, principal investigator of the experiment.

The novel device, which uses a coating of lithium to cover the interior wall of the small tokamak, had prior to the upgrade become the first to keep temperature constant from the hot, central core of the plasma to the normally cool outer edge. "The machine is now ready to exploit the full capability of the upgrade," said Phil Efthimion, head of PPPL's Plasma Science and Technology unit, which oversees the experiment.

Fusion combines light elements in the form of plasma—the hot, charged state of matter composed of free electrons and atomic nuclei—that generates massive amounts of energy. Scientists are seeking to replicate fusion on Earth for a virtually inexhaustible supply of power to generate electricity.

To complete the upgrade, the team produced 500 kilowatts of neutral beam power while increasing the strength of the that confines the plasma by two-thirds, and covering the walls of the tokamak with a lithium coating; the seemingly magic metal absorbs stray plasma particles and keeps them from bouncing back into the core of the plasma and cooling it down. The team further raised the neutral beam power to over 600 kilowatts, increasing the heating power of the machine by a factor of 10.

Still maintain good confinement?

The next test is whether the upgraded machine can maintain good confinement and constant temperature in far hotter plasmas, with stronger magnetic fields. The beam upgrade will keep the density from dropping and demonstrate whether the hotter and more energetic plasma can still be controlled.

Construction of the upgrade called for steps that included installation of a stronger power supply and a new evaporator and was "a difficult task to accomplish," Majeski said. "Everyone worked very hard. We got a lot of help from the laboratory's NSTX-U [National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade] engineering team." Tom Kozub of the team oversaw the engineering effort and physicist Dennis Boyle ran the device when it met the operating requirements.

Collaborating on the LTX-β are scientists from eight research centers across the country: Oak Ridge and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories; Princeton University; University of California, Los Angeles; University of Wisconsin-Madison; University of Washington; and University of Tennessee, Knoxville.


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Researchers demonstrate first hot plasma edge in a fusion facility

Citation: Machine set to see if lithium can help bring fusion to Earth (2019, May 2) retrieved 23 September 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-machine-lithium-fusion-earth.html
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May 06, 2019
How do we use the heat generated by fusion to produce electricity, if the plasma is contained in a mag field? just wondering

May 06, 2019
Fusions Achilles Heel

Neutrons carry this heat of fusion
savvys84> How do we use the heat generated by fusion to produce electricity, if the plasma is contained in a mag field? just wondering

The heat of fusion is carried away in the form of neutrons
embedding themselves in Lithium undergoing transformation
where this heat of fusion is carried away by water circulating
through these Lithium plates
in
This infamous 15 minutes

p.s. these Neutrons destroying these Lithium plates in the process as Lithium is the only metal that can stop these Neutrons

May 06, 2019
Neutrons, Fusions Achilles Heel

Neutrons, the bane of fusion
you ether love them or hate them
you cannot live without them
fusion cannot manage without them
even though they sinter the reactor core
creating impurities that dampen this fusion
resulting in complete shutdown
for a complete clean out
after only seconds of run time
so after a long cleaning out time later
another runtime is scheduled, again
For another few seconds, till next time....

May 06, 2019
Lithium, Fusions saving Grace

Coat these reactor walls in a skin of Lithium
the walls of the tokamak with a lithium coating; the seemingly magic metal absorbs stray plasma particles and keeps them from bouncing back into the core of the plasma and cooling it down

This lithium coating absorbs these Neutrons while being destroyed by these Neutrons where these Neutron's also destroy these reactor walls by virtue of slowing these Neutrons in flight

Then this piece de la resistance, this energy that keeps these Fusion fires burning
The team further raised the neutral beam power to over 600 kilowatts, increasing the heating power of the machine by a factor of 10

Fusion Reactors work their best combined in tandem with Giga Watt Fossil Fuelled PowerStation's

May 06, 2019
Hybrid Fusion

Think of Fusion PowerStation's as Hybrid Fusion
Fusion Reactors work their best combined in tandem with Giga Watt Fossil Fuelled PowerStation's

Dual power, burn oil to maintain a fusion temperature
to maintain a neutron output, to heat water to make steam, to drive a steam turbine, to drive generators, to produce electricity to feed heat into these fusion fires

The epitome of Hybrid Fusion

May 06, 2019
How do we use the heat generated by fusion to produce electricity, if the plasma is contained in a mag field? just wondering

Because heat is emitted in the form radiation (i.e. photons)?
Duh.

May 06, 2019
Neutrons are Fusion reactors Achilles Heel, why these Fusion Reactors Fail

A large proportion of the heat of fusion
is retained in these Neutrons
which is absorbed in by the Lithium plates where water circulating inside this Lithium produces steam
driving steam turbines

These pesky Neutrons are the main reason these Fusion Reactors always fail
they take excessive amounts of heat from the Fusion Core
as some of these Neutrons are moving a percentage of the speed of light

There's not much anybody can do anything to stop them leaving the core
except extract the heat of fusion after they embed themselves in these water cooled lithium plates
hopefully to return this lost heat to this fusion core for to maintain the 100 million degree fusion core temperature

May 06, 2019
Which is where Hybrid Fusion enters the fray

These neutrons remove more energy than the Giga Watt Fossil Fuelled PowerStation
as keeping a 100 million degree core temperature is very inefficient

Keeping this 100 million degree core temperature constant requires a reliable constant electricity supply
which is where this Giga Watt Fossil Fuelled PowerStation keeps the fusion fires burning
Then the heat of fusion extracted from the neutrons is used to supply this National Grid
we have
Hybrid Fusion

May 07, 2019
How do we use the heat generated by fusion to produce electricity, if the plasma is contained in a mag field? just wondering

Because heat is emitted in the form radiation (i.e. photons)?
Duh.
As Granville says fusion reactors are destined to fail due to neutron release. heat via readiation is fine, wont this radiation be hampered by the strong magfield

May 07, 2019
And you think the scientists/engineers didn't think of the neutron release exactly...why?

Maybe you don't understand why they use liquid lithium in this setup? Or - more likely - you didn't read the article?

wont this radiation be hampered by the strong magfield

Photons are electrically neutral. Why in the world do you think would they be hindered by magnetic fields? Didn't you go to school?

May 07, 2019
Liquid Lithium Fusion

Recycling Tritium
One percent of the tritium injected into the plasma is consumed in this process
the remaining unconsumed tritium is removed and recycled to maintain fuelling
to accomplish this task liquid lithium would combine with tritium in this Tokamak and carry it with dust and other impurities to a filter outside this Tokamak where the dust would be removed

Removing this dust
If left unchecked, many tons of dust could accumulate in a year

Notice
these many if and buts and maybes from Princeton Plasma Physics
the theory is to have a blanket of Liquid Lithium circulating
carrying heat and impurities to negate shutting down this fusion reactor every few minutes
https://www.pppl....r-plants

p.s. in the meantime this new angle of continuously cleaning out these fusion reactors while in use with liquid lithium is under investigation

May 07, 2019
Neutrons in Liquid Lithium Fusion

Stopping moving Neutrons
As antialias_physorg has pointed out photons, are electrically neutral
as are Neutrons, unless we want to theoretically quibble
they have a small residual charge due to the orbital's of these theoretical internal quarks
this is also the theory behind this small magnetic neutron dipole moment

Will liquid lithium stop moving neutrons as effectively as solid lithium?
There is a tacit instinct that solid lithium stops more neutrons

May 07, 2019
Using liquid lithium

Requires containers, requires metals
that neutrons readily pass through
sintering and destroying in the process
that even if liquid lithium is more effective than solid lithium
all liquids need containers
unfortunately neutrons respect no containers
neutrons are not biased
neutrons treat all containers with equal contempt
in this fusion reactor world there is no fix
Our Sun retains its ash in its centre as this fusion occurs all around its centre
with circulating currants travelling 4,000miles to the surface,
this sun retains its ash and requires no shields
this suns fusion is forged in the same forge as biological life forms
this sun is not mechanical, it has no parts to wear out
Our Sun does not periodically shut down to clear out waste products!

May 08, 2019
And you think the scientists/engineers didn't think of the neutron release exactly...why?

Maybe you don't understand why they use liquid lithium in this setup? Or - more likely - you didn't read the article?

wont this radiation be hampered by the strong magfield

Photons are electrically neutral. Why in the world do you think would they be hindered by magnetic fields? Didn't you go to school?
Lol, you do need to go back to school mate

May 08, 2019
So do you deny photons are electrically neutral?

Or that they are unaffected by magnetic and electric fields?

Got some references? Just askin'.

May 08, 2019
reverse question: do photons have an electric and magnetic field associated with them?
Have you heard of orthogonal photons that are orthogonal to the photons of our universe? Its a rabbit hole and you would be surprised to look at photos, courtesy of my close encounter with a ufo on 2 occasions

May 08, 2019
Doesn't matter, they're electrically neutral. Like I said, got some references? Because it looks like you're spouting bullshit.

You probably should do some serious reading before you tell more lies about photons.

I suggest "Physics for Dummies."

May 09, 2019
for someone who believes gps has anything to do with Einstein, that book you suggest is aptly for you.
so what bullshit are you on about? you have a lot to learn, go back to school before schooling me

May 09, 2019
So, no references.

Didn't think so.

May 09, 2019
Photons do not change their momentum due to electric or magnetic fields.

They're not charged particles. No matter how many cranks want them to be nor how badly.

This is standard crank physics. If you ever see someone claiming electric or magnetic fields can change the momentum of photons, they are a crank. This has been known since the 1840s.

May 09, 2019
Electrically Neutral Energy and Particles
Da Schneib> Photons do not change their momentum due to electric or magnetic fields
They're not charged particles
No matter how many cranks want them to be nor how badly
This has been known since 1840

We envy your task, Da Schneib
your task is not likened to tasks of old
this is not the benni and candrives of old, old bean
for Da Schneib, you've seen at firsthand what has not been seen
has not been seen ineth all your tangles through these nights
Da Schneib you've seen your compatriots fall and tumble
and in the morn come back and continue their forum
for Da Schneib, you will know
wheneth in the morn
wheneth at the gates of your forum
whether they be open or closed
for in this foul air in the night
for in the morn these gate hath always remained open
so why Da Schneib, did RealityCheck appoint a forum
where upon these gates immediately closed
Courtesy of savvys84 and yourself, Da Schneib?

May 09, 2019
Hey, try it yourself with a laser pointer and a magnet.

Prolly cost you US$10 or so.

If you're really creative you can get a telescope and a camera tripod and focus the laser pointer on a lamp post a mile away or so. Then try the magnet. Let me know how that works out for you.

That was how my first really good science teacher taught me.

May 09, 2019
Da Schneib, your Forum Question

"so why Da Schneib, did RealityCheck appoint a forum
where upon these gates immediately closed
Courtesy of savvys84 and yourself, Da Schneib?"

Your question requires addressing, Da Schneib
this is not the dust that brushes under carpets, old bean
for if this infestation spreadeths
becomeths viral, spreading iteths its tentacles, Da Schneib
where upon its tentacles becometh these normeths
youreth tasketh willeth be completeth
foreth Da Schneib, all this hard worketh yourself has implemeted will be for nauagth, Da Schneib
these foroms will be likened to these desolations of these deserts
for Da Schneib, likened to this equivalent of excessive implementation of this ignore
For Da Schneib, as you closed your forum gate
Is effective implementation 100% ignore for one and all, so what's your answer, Da Schneib?

May 09, 2019
Just do the experiment yourself. All this other stuff is bullshit.

May 09, 2019
So, no references.

Didn't think so.
I am the reference
for the second part ask new York times

May 09, 2019
Da Schneib, your Forum Question

Even though it requires an answer, Da Schneib
even as you've implemented your right
Implemented this ignore
if Da Schneib, you've implemented this ignore on granville
so as Da Schneib, to try to legitimise your ignore of your forum question, Da Schneib
you cannot ignoreth youreth forum question, Da Schneib
this iseth noteth a forum question to ignoreth
effectively Da Schneib, you have put ignore on ignore
efectivelly, you have your head in the sand, Da Schneib,
with every one on ignore, while your forums gates are closethed, Da Schneib
for Da Schneib, your silence raises another question
as your forum gates are closed are chained and locked
Please Da Schneib, explain to one and all why this excessive implantation of ignore?

May 09, 2019
Da Schneib, your Forum Question

As your path was blocked, Da Schneib
as you could not continue your flying saucers, Da Schneib
as discussions on these forums are want to wander
for as we discuss this want to wander, Da Schneib
your very discussion Da Schneib, is at this very moment is with savvys84
wandering in theme from that forum to this forum in question
for as savvys84 and yourself, Da Schneib engage in legitimate textulisations
the reason Da Schneib, you are here with savvys84
is because, Da Schneib old bean you have transferred your discussion
your discussion previously was cut short
your forum gate was closethed, Da Schneib
as here you are, Da Schneib
continuing a discussion, resulting in a forum gate locked and chainethed
Refusing to answer your forum question, Da Schneib old bean

May 09, 2019
Never mind flying saucers; let's talk about photons and magnets.

Photons are uncharged and as such their momentum is not affected by them. Do you dispute this well-known fact of physics?

Show me the laser beams curved by magnets.

Waitin' over here.

May 09, 2019
Your Forum Question, Da Schneib

The reason for your Forum Question, Da Schneib
is because of the finality of this equivalent of ignore, old bean
even though this meaneth nought to granville, Da Schneib
this pointeth old bean recideths in your nightly textual discussions, Da Schneib
if it were not for your horribilis discussions, Da Schneib
extreme use of inflammatory language, old bean
your use Da Schneib, of language that maketh jonesdave blush witheth embarrassment, old bean
if it wasn't your extreme use of language, Da Schneib
your forum question, Da Schneib would not be an existing question
as your existing use of extremely unpleasant language hath not resulted in chianethed forum gates
this is why your forum question exists, Da Schneib
when these two extremes of discussions are compared in comparison
when this discussion suitable for gentle ears was chainethed shut
whereas these demonised forums stilleth remaineth open
Is why, Da Schneib - Your Question, requires an answer

May 09, 2019
There's the lasers, and there's the magnets.

Now make it curve.

Or admit you lied. Simple as that.

May 09, 2019
Thank you, Da Schneib

For letting one all know
"Da Schneib: Never mind flying saucers"
You have transferred a discussion thateth chainethed a forum closed to this forum anew
youreth discussion concerning flying saucers, Da Schneib
is equally on thiseth forum not relevant, as this forum is equally not concerning flying saucers
We would not want you in this position being responsible of chaining shut two forums, Da Schneib
Your Forum Question Awaits, Da Schneib

May 09, 2019
Either you got the lasers and magnets experiment, or you don't.

Obviously, you don't.

We're done here.

May 09, 2019
Da Schneib, on the hop
Either you got the lasers and magnets experiment, or you don't.
Obviously, you don't.
We're done here.

We have Da Schneib on the hop
Da Schneib, running with his tail between his legs
there is no where to run, Da Schneib
nowhere to hide, in these open and honest forums, Da Schneib
Da Schneib, you have just accomplished a feat known not by these forums
all that has been observed in these forums has not seen these extremes of disciplinarians
for you know well Da Schneib, these disciplines previously apliedeth in singular singulithisms
for Da Schneib, foreth ifeth your headeth is spinnings disciplinarians are singular in implementation
always on these forums Da Schneib, wheneth a sineth iseth committed, it applies singularly
this singular sin is not universally taken out on one and all indiscriminately
as Da Schneib, it against fair play
It is not Cricket for one and to be punished for your sins, Da Schneib

TrollianDaSchneib, Your Bridge Awaits:

May 09, 2019
Dude, you lied, you got caught, that's it.

May 09, 2019
For even as TrollianDaSchneib lies

TrollianDaSchneib under his Bridge
TrollianDaSchneib> Either you got the lasers and magnets experiment, or you don't.

Obviously, you don't.

We're done here.

Then we have
TrollianDaSchneib> Dude, you lied, you got caught, that's it

Even as TrollianDaSchneib textually types
TrollianDaSchneib hath forgotten thateth he has already stated he is done here!
for as he accuses poor savvys84 of miscreants
as TrollianDaSchneib accuses everyone but himself of lying
TrollianDaSchneib lies in the very accusations of his textual scribing
TrollianDaSchneib, your new Bridge awaits, well deserved for all your accomplishments!

May 09, 2019
I have the granville retard blocked but thought I'd add my 2 cents

"Faraday effect, in physics, the rotation of the plane of polarization (plane of vibration) of a light beam by a magnetic field. Michael Faraday, an English scientist, first observed the effect in 1845 when studying the influence of a magnetic field on plane-polarized light waves."
Show me the laser beams curved by magnets
Well not directly...

"the reason that light and magnetism do not recognize one another is that light has a so much higher frequency... We modify the plasmon rather than the photon. The plasmon is then transformed back into a photon, and that is the magic of it..."

Re neutrons

"Aneutronic fusion is any form of fusion power in which the majority of the energy released is carried by charged particles..."

-3 companies currently:
TAE Technologies/colliding beams
Lawrenceville Plasma Physics/Z pinch
Polywell fusion/electrostatic

May 09, 2019
I mean, look at this inane infantile bullshit
Even as TrollianDaSchneib textually types
TrollianDaSchneib hath forgotten thateth he has already stated he is done here!
'a turd by any other name...'
this is not the dust that brushes under carpets, old bean
for if this infestation spreadeths
becomeths viral, spreading iteths its tentacles, Da Schneib
where upon its tentacles becometh these normeths
youreth tasketh willeth be completeth
foreth Da Schneib, all this hard worketh yourself has implemeted will be for nauagth, Da Schneib
these foroms will be likened to these desolations of these deserts
for Da Schneib, likened to this equivalent of excessive implementation of this ignore
For Da Schneib, as you closed your forum gate
'Diarrhea by any other name...'

My god

May 09, 2019
Dear Otto, granville is a free range granville

Dear Otto, when you reread these textual comments
which are Dear Otto, as you know as to what their reference
you will see their inferences
as Dear Ghostly Otto, granville has seen it all before, but not here, yet
but dear Otto, you have just seen the future on this horizon, so ignore if you wish
it is after all, Oh Ghostly One, your choice!
But, unlike yourself Oh Ghostly One, granville is a free range granville that within this allotted commentary monthly time scale like everyone else are free to roam these forums
Oh Ghostly One, think carefully on your choice as it is your choice!

May 09, 2019
Thanks Dear Otto
For making the comparison of granvilles textual scribing
compared to Ottos textual scribing stark and clear
when one and all views yours Otto and granvilles side by side
you can see Otto, why this is one of the reasons
This question, this Forum Question of Da Schneib, exists!


May 10, 2019
Never mind flying saucers; let's talk about photons and magnets.

Photons are uncharged and as such their momentum is not affected by them. Do you dispute this well-known fact of physics?

Show me the laser beams curved by magnets.

Waitin' over here.
Flying saucers are a must for this . you were not there and you haven't seen the photos, so you will not understand jack about photons. And you can perform your expt till the cows come home. I won't be educating you here, coz you are thick

May 10, 2019
If you're really creative you can get a telescope and a camera tripod and focus the laser pointer on a lamp post a mile away or so.

Did something like that (minus the magnet bit) with the first laser we scrounged from an old DVD player (one of the first generation that still had these heavy duty lasers in them). Pointed it at a house across the valley and then got on our bikes to ride on over and measure the dispersion.

Happened to be pointing it right into the bedroom window of some guy. Had some explaining to do what we were doing at 2 o'clock at night in his back yard with a meter stick.

May 10, 2019
I was trying to get a specular reflection from the light sensor on top of the light housing in order to collimate. I wound up abandoning the effort in favor of tuning it on stars, but I got some fun out of it.

May 10, 2019
Light is not affected by the speed of the emitter

Take a laser pointer
fixed to earth on the equator
pointing at the sun
the earth is moving at 30km/s
the laser is moving 300thousand km/s
that is a ratio of 10,000:1

Align this laser on a spot in line with the sun
with 1km between the laser and the target
in 12hours time the laser and its spot is diametrically apposed
the laser is now pointing away from the sun
the laser now no longer aligns with the target by 1km/10,000
by 1km = 1million mm 1,000,000/10,000 = 100mm
the laser is 100mm of the target spot
As in another 12hours time the laser is so aligned with its original spot
this phenomena occurs regularly every 12hours because of the law of the velocity of light

Light is not affected by the speed of the emitter

May 10, 2019
for those who can see the theory behind
a laser pointer fixed to earth on the equator
will see these simplified mathematics
are a mite more complicated than first impressions
as this relies on the time is takes for light to travel 1km
multiplied by the orbital velocity of the earth
will give the sidereal apparent shift of the laser pointer
as the rotation of the sun as the earth follows the sun
moving at 631kms orbiting its galaxy
gives the sidereal apparent shift of the laser pointer
which is even greater than the earth's 30km a second
as was pointed out these mathematics are not as simplistic
as the above example that being its purpose to visually highlight
this phenomena in as straight forward style as once this concept
is grasped it highlights the universal velocity of moving stars and galaxies
and the fact light is not affected by the speed of the emitter

May 10, 2019
the purpose of this in-depth investigation
demonstrating the fact light is not affected by the speed of the emitter
is because in this fusion reactor it has been pointed out by savvys84
is light effected by magnetic fields
as once this laser demonstration is grasped
it demonstrates that after 12hours this mathematical sidereal shift
if present demonstrates light is not affected by the speed of the emitter
alternatively if this sidereal shift is not apparent not even by an atomic diameter
means light in the vicinity of the earth, the sun and stars in the galaxy
is not holding true to the statement light is not affected by the speed of the emitter
which comes full circle to savvys84 question
is light effected by magnetic fields

May 11, 2019
Flying saucers are a must for this . you were not there and you haven't seen the photos, so you will not understand jack about photons. And you can perform your expt till the cows come home. I won't be educating you here, coz you are thick
Fun fact - alien laser beams can actually attract cows, which is how they lift them into their vessels for mutilation experiments.

May 12, 2019
Flying saucers are a must for this . you were not there and you haven't seen the photos, so you will not understand jack about photons. And you can perform your expt till the cows come home. I won't be educating you here, coz you are thick
Fun fact - alien laser beams can actually attract cows, which is how they lift them into their vessels for mutilation experiments.
Lol their protective fields can also deflect you photons by more than 90 deg or reflect them totally back at you without any mirror

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