A major step closer to a viable recording material for future hard disk drives

hard disk
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

Magnetic recording is the primary technology underpinning today's large-scale data storage. Now, companies are racing to develop new hard disk devices (HDDs) capable of recording densities greater than 1 terabit per square inch.

Perpendicular recording HDDs store data as tiny areas of "up" or "down" magnetization within a thin layer on the surfaces of the disks. Each tiny area represents one bit of information, and increasing the areal density of recordings requires a reduction in bit size.

The catch is that the current media that rely on perpendicular cobalt-chromium-platinum (CoCrPt) oxide granular films are reaching their physical limit—a density of approximately 750 gigabits per square inch—because thermal fluctuations prevent shrinking the grain size below 6 to 7 nanometers. In AIP Advances, a group of researchers in India report their work tweaking the L10 phase, or crystallographic orientation, of an iron and platinum (FePt) alloy as a solution.

The L10 phase of the FePt alloy boasts high magnetocrystalline anisotropy, which means that it remains thermally stable even at grain sizes as small as 3 nanometers. But the material's downside is that it requires a high annealing temperature (500 degrees to 600 degrees Celsius) to transform the deposited disordered phase into an ordered tetragonal L10 phase, raising the cost of manufacturing.

"The material's need for such a high annealing temperature renders it incompatible with , as well as causes significant grain growth and an increase in bit size—none of which is desirable," said Ajay Gupta, director of the Center for Spintronic Materials at Amity University in India.

This has resulted in a method developed by the authors which leads to a significant enhancement of the L10 transformation rate in FePt systems by lowering the ordering temperature below 300 degrees C. "This is a major step toward realizing L10 FePt as a material for high density perpendicular recording," Gupta said.

L10 FePt as a perpendicular recording media may one day be able to increase the magnetic recording density in HDDs beyond 1 terabit per square inch. "Our work overcomes one of the main challenges by reducing the ordering temperature," said Gupta. "But there are still other crucial requirements—such as achieving the desired grain orientation—that must be met before it will become viable to use L10 FePt."

The group is now pursuing a better understanding of the atomic-level mechanism for the enhancement of the L10 transformation rate in FePt, and trying to optimize the layer composition and thicknesses of the multilayer structure to achieve peak enhancement. "We're working on the desired grain orientation for producing perpendicularly magnetized media by selecting the proper underlayer of material over which FePt will be deposited," Gupta said.

Explore further

Adding carbon gives iron-platinum nanocrystals the ideal optical properties for heat-assisted magnetic recording

More information: Kavita Sharma et al, Enhancement of L10 transformation in Fe/Pt multilayer by Cu addition, AIP Advances (2018). DOI: 10.1063/1.5045400
Journal information: AIP Advances

Citation: A major step closer to a viable recording material for future hard disk drives (2018, December 20) retrieved 23 May 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-12-major-closer-viable-material-future.html
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Feedback to editors

User comments

Dec 20, 2018
Since the future of mass storage is not spinning discs this is rather a waste of time

Dec 20, 2018
Spinning disks aren't going anywhere in the near term. In the longer term, they most likely are -- but don't we all try to get our work done in the short term?

Get out there and price a 6 TB SSD, if you can find one -- I just bought a 6 TB spinner to use as a backup, and it cost me something like $250.

(Lest I get tagged as a dinosaur, my computer has 2 TB of internal SSD and I've got several big SSDs connected externally.)

The SSD engineers are going to have to solve the problem of limited numbers of writes. I don't doubt that they will, but I doubt that solution's going to happen in the short term.

Dec 20, 2018
how about Tera-words for reading and writing using quantum communication. 3D / holographic storage. Sure disk drives have nice capacities but the transfer rates are killing it.

Dec 21, 2018
Magentic tape is better. Provided it isn't used in inferior equipment that stresses it or placed in strong electrical fields, it has better longevity and storage ability than metal disk hard drives. If you don't need very fast access, it is still a viable solution to long-term storage.

Dec 21, 2018
Actually SSD/flash engineers have kind of solved the problem of limited number of writes via over provisioning, bad block handling, other techniques, and also via the file system used to manage the data on flash memory so that frequently rewritten data isn't written to the same physical location. HDDs still have the advantage on $/GB, but flash is catching up and flash already has a huge advantage in $/IOPS. Yet as Thorium Boy points out, tape is far less expensive than either HDD/SSD, is also immune to ransom ware, and is far more cost efficient for long term archive of data when long term storage is required (say for legal purposes).

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more