Gold 'micro jewels' from the 3-D printer

Gold 'micro jewels' from the 3D printer
The laser printing technique: by printing copper and gold in turn, the gold helix initially is surrounded by a copper box. Etching the copper away, results in a free standing helix of pure gold. Credit: University of Twente

Thanks to a laser technique that ejects ultra-tiny droplets of metal, it is now possible to print 3-D metal structures—not only simple 'piles' of droplets, but complex overhanging structures, as well, like a helix measuring just microns in size, made of pure gold. Using this technique, it will be possible to print new 3-D micro components for electronics or photonics. University of Twente scientists publish their new results in Additive Manufacturing journal.

By shining an ultra-short laser pulse onto a nanometer-thin film, a tiny metal droplet melts and is ejected to its target, solidifying again after landing. Via this , called laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT), the UT researchers were able to build, drop by drop, a structure with and gold microdroplets. The copper acts as a mechanical support for the gold. In their paper in Additive Manufacturing, the researchers report printing a copper-gold . Such a structure could act as a mechanical spring or an electric inductor at the same time. This helix is printed with copper around it—together with the helix, a copper box is printed. In this way, subsequent are prevented from landing on the previous winding. After building the helix, drop by drop and layer by layer, the copper support box is etched away chemically. What remains is a helix of pure gold, no more than a few tens of microns in size.

No mixing

The volume of the metal droplets is a few femtoliters—a femtoliter is 10-15 liters. To give an impression, a femtoliter droplet has a diameter of little over one micrometer. The droplets are made by lighting the metal using an ultrashort pulse of green laser light. In this way, the copper and gold structure is built. A crucial question for the researchers was whether the two metals would mix at their interface. This would have consequences for the quality of the product after etching. Research shows that there isn't any mixing. The way a is built, drop by drop, results in a surface roughness, which is only about 0.3 to 0.7 microns.

Gold 'micro jewels' from the 3D printer
Top view (c) of the helix shows that it is threedimensional with a center void. In (b), it is still in the copper box. Credit: University of Twente

The LIFT technique is promising for other metals and combinations of metals, as well. The researchers expect opportunities for materials used in 3-D electronic circuits, micromechanic devices, sensors and biomedical applications. It is therefore a powerful new production technique on a very small scale, and an important step toward functionalisation of 3-D printing.

The paper "Printing of Complex Free-standing Microstructures via Laser-induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) of Pure Metal Films" will be published in the December print edition of Additive Manufacturing and is available now.

Gold 'micro jewels' from the 3D printer
The abbreviation 'UT.' (University of Twente) 3-D printed in gold. Credit: University of Twente

Explore further

3-D printing with metals achieved

More information: Matthias Feinaeugle et al. Printing of complex free-standing microstructures via laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of pure metal thin films, Additive Manufacturing (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.09.028
Citation: Gold 'micro jewels' from the 3-D printer (2018, October 30) retrieved 25 June 2019 from
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Feedback to editors

User comments

Oct 30, 2018
I remember working at an institute where they had an ultra high resolution 3D printer, which at the time (2004 or thereabouts) could go down to 11micrometers a pixel. Along with other groups we developed a microrobot/microgripper/haptic interface assembly for work in an electron microscope. However, we couldn't lug the electron microscope to a conference for 'show and tell'. So they printed us some discs for a 'towers of Hanoi' game with optic fibers as the 'towers' visitors could play it under a normal light microscope and get a feel for the bot/gripper. Fun stuff.

Seeing this jump in resolution in the article by an order of magnitude is really amazing.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more