Geologists uncover new clues about largest mass extinction ever

Geologists uncover new clues about largest mass extinction ever
The photo depicts a sample of mantle xenolith, rock sections of the lithosphere that get captured by the passing magma and erupted to the surface during the volcanic explosion. Credit: Michael W. Broadley.

A new study could help explain the driving force behind the largest mass extinction in the history of earth, known as the End-Permian Extinction.

The event, also known as the Great Dying, occurred around 250 million years ago when a in what is today the Russian province of Siberia sent nearly 90 percent of all life right into . Geologists call this eruption the Siberian Flood Basalts, and it ran for almost a million years.

"The scale of this extinction was so incredible that scientists have often wondered what made the Siberian Flood Basalts so much more deadly than other similar eruptions," said Michael Broadley, a at the Centre for Petrographic and Geochemical Research in Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France, and lead author of the paper.

The work, which was published in Nature Geoscience, was co-authored by Lawrence (Larry) Taylor, the former director of the Planetary Geosciences Institute at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Taylor, whose prolific career at UT spanned 46 years, passed away in September 2017 at age 79.

According to Broadley, "Taylor was instrumental in supplying samples of mantle xenoliths, rock sections of the lithosphere [a section of the planet located between the crust and the mantle] that get captured by the passing magma and erupted to the surface during the . Taylor also provided advice throughout the study."

Through the analysis of samples, Broadley and his team tried to determine the composition of the lithosphere. They found that before the Siberian Flood Basalts took place, the Siberian lithosphere was heavily loaded with chlorine, bromine, and iodine, all chemical elements from the halogen group. However, these elements seem to have disappeared after the volcanic .

"We concluded that the large reservoir of halogens that was stored in the Siberian lithosphere was sent into the earth's atmosphere during the volcanic explosion, effectively destroying the ozone layer at the time and contributing to the mass extinction," Broadley said.


Explore further

New evidence that Siberian volcanic eruptions caused extinction 250 million yrs ago

More information: Michael W. Broadley et al, End-Permian extinction amplified by plume-induced release of recycled lithospheric volatiles, Nature Geoscience (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41561-018-0215-4
Journal information: Nature Geoscience

Citation: Geologists uncover new clues about largest mass extinction ever (2018, August 27) retrieved 23 May 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-08-geologists-uncover-clues-largest-mass.html
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Aug 27, 2018
This corroborates well with the account of the great Flood as explained the great history book.
"Millions of years" seems a bit of a stretch, but I think further modifications to this theory will bring about even greater corroboration.


Aug 27, 2018
This corroborates well with the account of the great Flood as explained the great history book.
"Millions of years" seems a bit of a stretch, but I think further modifications to this theory will bring about even greater corroboration.



It has precisely no corroboration with the mythology of bronze age peasants.

Aug 27, 2018
Nothing corroborates science with pseudoscience or mythological histories.

"Millions of years" is based on reliable and verified method of dating based on isotope decay. At this time humans, let alone humans with written language weren't even close to existing.

While it's possible that there was some kind of large flood event in human history (even before written language, that could be passed down orally), that might correlate with the biblical recording of "The Flood", it would not relate to this particular extinction event.

Aug 27, 2018
Bart_A The christian bible is no more a "great history book" than I am the last Princess of Andromeda. Seriously, why do you even have an interest in science when you have no desire to be scientific? Science and religion are irreconcilable if for no other reason than religion claims to have an answer for everything- and it's the same answer for every question!

Aug 27, 2018
This comment has been removed by a moderator.

Aug 27, 2018
This comment has been removed by a moderator.

Aug 27, 2018
Science and religion are irreconcilable if for no other reason than religion claims to have an answer for everything- and it's the same answer for every question!


Science and faith are only mutually exclusive in the points of view of extremist proponents of either, and I feel I shouldn't need to point out to you the logical fallacy of sweeping generalizations, but here I am just-a doin' it.

I hope you were already aware, and were just being a jerk to someone you disagree with on the internet to make yourself feel better.

But don't worry, it's perfectly natural and human to hate or fear what you don't understand, which seems to be "religion" in your case.


Aug 28, 2018
Creationism, but not religions, are closer to science and the Laws, such as for Thermodynamics and Conservation. The Laws of Thermodynamics, for example could be compared to the Ten Commandments, where both are full of Logic and Reason, and also work well.

Religions, on the other hand, follow the doctrines and dogma of the religious leaders, who are often politically motivated and are hungry for power and control over the people.
Creationism is of the understanding that parts of the Bible was misinterpreted, particularly in the first Book which is Genesis. We strive to discover and understand the true meanings that are hidden in the Bible, which is one of the reasons why we don't proselityse.

Aug 28, 2018
This corroborates well with the account of the great Flood as explained the great history book.
"Millions of years" seems a bit of a stretch, but I think further modifications to this theory will bring about even greater corroboration.


I totally agree. But there are those that will have opposing views and will put forth a well articulated argument. And, unfortunately, there are those that will blurt out statements that are meant to demean and generalize without any substance.

My point of view is that I like to view things right from the beginning and address the secular evolutionists' view that, although being scientifically impossible, nothing created everything.
And from that nothing, a proton slowly evolved into a hydrogen atom and then from that, hydrogen gas became human beings.

Aug 28, 2018
"Millions of years" is based on reliable and verified method of dating based on isotope decay. At this time humans, let alone humans with written language weren't even close to existing.


Dating requires a ratio between the measurement of the number of isotopes when the substance was first made to the number of isotopes at the time of the last measurement.

How do you measure something 'millions of years' ago?

Aug 28, 2018
Heck, the Egyptian Scholars taught Plato and his teachers laughed at them as they and their history only described One great Flood, while the Egyptians had documentation of 3 civilization destroying floods, the Biblical one that destroyed civilizations in the Indus Valley and across the Middle East and Indian ocean area, while the Egyptians described two major catastrophic floods in the Pacific, both of them to impact 'Atlantis' at the time, the first causing great damage and rearranging the land, the second with the full sinking of Atlantis, and then the third flood of The Bible, which is actually told over all of the sea dwelling peoples and the entire world has stories of the floods at the end of the ice age and how they covered the lands of great value and richness beneath the waves...Sound familiar? All it took was some climate change to wipe out whole civilizations, time and time and time again, by the archeological records.

Aug 29, 2018
"My point of view is that I like to view things right from the beginning and address the secular evolutionists' view that, although being scientifically impossible, nothing created everything."

But then, the idea that God did it runs into the same exact problem. If the universe can't have come from nothing, which are the words believers use when making this argument, neither can God. All that argument does is add one extra step before you get to the same exact conundrum.

You can't just decide that God doesn't have to obey the rules, that's cheating. Because if we can allow that this God fellow came from nothing, we can also allow that the universe did. You can't have it both ways.


Aug 29, 2018
"How do you measure something 'millions of years' ago?"

Google is your friend, half-lives your tool.
Start with short life-time isotopes, match their 'ladder' to longer life-time isotopes, match their 'ladder' to yet longer life-times, match such to very long life-times and those isotopes' decay products' patterns. Lo, you have a series of 'clocks' which extend back to the supernova which 'seeded' our solar system's primordial nebula.

Patient, careful, cautious work, wary error-bars on lower-significance decimal places, eyes wide for potential contaminants and leaching, but Real Science and robust results.

Aug 29, 2018
And from that nothing, a proton slowly evolved into a hydrogen atom and then from that, hydrogen gas became human beings.


Errrm, a proton is a hydrogen atom, with the addition of an electron! H+ is a proton without said electron. Stick to religion, as science does not appear to be your strength.


Aug 29, 2018
Science and faith are only mutually exclusive in the points of view of extremist proponents
.

The facts says otherwise, for example that unevidenced story telling and evidenced research are different inmethod and results, the first known not to work - as expected - the latter to work - as expected. And of course the last decade have seen all the religious remaining "gap" claims gone, from this years rejection of 'gods' (100 % natural universe, only affected by itself), last years rejection of 'souls/afterlife' (too weak remaining interactions) and the 2011 rejection of 'inherited sin' (no single human breeding pair bottleneck).

Are facts "extremist" proponents of the no magic observation? No rational person would claim that I hope, certainly not someone acknowledging the existence and use of facts.

Just give it up, the universe happens to be "atheist" and now we know it.

Aug 29, 2018
When I say "last year" I am referencing to the many physicists that noted the 'soul' (or 'ghost', 'afterlife, 'rebirth') ideas cannot work; the particle physics evidence had been collecting since 2016. The "entirely mechanistic" universe has to stew a bit I think, but the final Planck data release nailed it in the face of some remaining anomalies, accounting for them nicely.

How do you measure something 'millions of years' ago?


Easily. For one, contemplate the Sun. However you model the solar and so system age, it will be at least 500 million years to be stable as seen. Then google "isochron dating", it is self calibrating so no need for relative or absolute references from elsewhere.

Since the system coalesced 4,567 million years ago, and the Moon impact event happened ~ 60 million years after, the Earth is now dated to 4.51 billion years old, easily within 1 % error. That is better than you know your own length, I'm sure.

Aug 29, 2018
My point of view is that I like to view things right from the beginning and address the secular evolutionists' view that, although being scientifically impossible, nothing created everything.


That is not what biologists say, that is what religious say that they say. What biologists do is that they observe the process that evolves populations genetically over generations, it has entirely natural mechanisms in place.

You may think of cosmology, but the latest Planck data release has an eternal inflation as likeliest. Again, physicists observe "everything", it is the religious that has the idea of 'nothing'.

Speaking of which, why blame science and education for loss of religion? It too is natural, since the universe is. It works too, sociologists claim the statistics is that Europe is now dominantly non-religious, the latest generation effectively so (nearly 100 % secular), and the most happy people live in the most secular areas (Scandinavia).

Aug 29, 2018
Whart1984Aug 27, 2018
This comment has been removed by a moderator.

"99% of all species are dead." god
"100% of all zephyr is dead." mods

But they both return eh? Only life evolves tho-

"99% of all gods are dead. Only a few more to go." otto

Aug 29, 2018
Start with short life-time isotopes, match their 'ladder' to longer life-time isotopes, match their 'ladder' to yet longer life-times, match such to very long life-times and those isotopes' decay products' patterns. Lo, you have a series of 'clocks' which extend back to the supernova which 'seeded' our solar system's primordial nebula.


So which supernova is it and what is the starting value?

Aug 29, 2018
Errrm, a proton is a hydrogen atom, with the addition of an electron! H+ is a proton without said electron. Stick to religion, as science does not appear to be your strength.


I am still waiting for an answer as to how it evolved into an atom.

Aug 30, 2018
I am still waiting for an answer as to how it evolved into an atom.


Atoms condensed from the primordial plasma. http://www.einste...hys.html

But something tells me you'll just wave this away as nonsense because it violates your faith in the supernatural.

Aug 30, 2018
I am still waiting for an answer as to how it evolved into an atom.


Atoms condensed from the primordial plasma. http://www.einste...hys.html

But something tells me you'll just wave this away as nonsense because it violates your faith in the supernatural.


From the article you suggested:

"Let's trace the development starting at about a hundredth of a second and ending at three minutes cosmic time. At the beginning of this time period, the universe was filled with a plasma consisting of matter well-known to physics: protons and neutrons in about equal proportions constituting what physicists call baryonic matter, as well as electrons, their anti-particles (positrons), neutrinos, and photons."

Sorry, that doesn't explain the issue since the prediction assumes that something (plasma) was there already. A prediction based on an assumption is not scientific. It's a guess.

Sep 01, 2018
After reading all (or most) of the pertinent posts here, I have concluded that almost all are entirely concerned with aspects of the Natural Universe, namely Matter/Energy and their effects on everything that the human senses are capable of detecting, as well as experiencing. For the purpose of even greater detection, the finest and biggest telescopes and other instruments are manufactured in the hopes that the most burning questions will be answered to the satisfaction of all who question their very own existence and why.
All well and good. However, the question on how and why life exists and all other questions, such as, "Does God exist?" and "Where did he come from?" and other great queries regarding that which humans consider to be of a "religious" nature.
But the concept and reality of God the Creator transcends all of earthly religions, along with dogma and doctrine invented by humans in their wish to bring possible harmony and hegemony to those who seek a good life.

Sep 01, 2018
-CONTINUED-
Also, the concept, the existence, and the reality of God the Creator transcends the norms of Matter/Energy and its Laws - being that this God who created all Matter/Energy is not of His Creations or the effects that come out of them.
This God who creates and causes the creation and motion of Stars, planets and all things of Matter/Energy is not Himself borne of the Natural Universe but had set in motion the Natural processes that gave birth to the Universe that humans are able to detect with their senses.
Everything that ever was, is, and will be is by Design. And yet, behind the Design/Creation there remains the gift of Choice.
Since the Creation of Man there was that special gift given to him, and he has been exploiting it ever since.

Sep 01, 2018
@Egg_mc_muffin is a trump troll and couldn't design crap if he ate 20 egg-mc-muffins in a 6ft hail storm. The article says;

"We concluded that the large reservoir of halogens that was stored in the Siberian lithosphere was sent into the earth's atmosphere during the volcanic explosion, effectively destroying the ozone layer at the time and contributing to the mass extinction," Broadley said.


So they are saying that halogens destroyed the ozone layer. We globally banned halogens but Gee and look at what fossil fuels are doing.

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