Female basketball players face disproportionate racial bias: New study

August 24, 2018, Taylor & Francis

New research has uncovered a recurring pattern of referee bias in women's college basketball.

The Howard Journal of Communications study reveals that, during the ten seasons from 2008 to 2017, referees called a disproportionate number of personal fouls against female basketball players from historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) compared to female basketball players from predominantly white institutions (PWIs).

The findings add to mounting evidence that racial discrimination remains an issue in sport today. In recent years, several high-profile examples have been reported in professional leagues nationwide, including the National Football League (NFL) and the National Hockey League (NHL).

To shed light on whether referee bias exists in women's basketball, study author Dr. Andrew Dix examined publicly-accessible data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) website. All 333 teams that played every season in Division 1 from 2008 to 2017 were included in the analysis: 23 women's college basketball teams classified as HBCUs, and 310 teams classified as PWIs.

Dr. Dix tabulated the total number of personal fouls per game (PFPG) that referees called against each individual team, and calculated the ten-year average for every team.

The five most penalized teams over these ten seasons were HBCUs. Overall, eight out of the 15 most penalized teams were from HBCUs, despite representing less than 7% of the universities analyzed. On average, teams from HBCUs were called for an additional 1.5 personal fouls per game than teams from PWIs.

Comparatively, referees called significantly fewer personal fouls against female basketball players from PWIs than those from HBCUs, indicating a recurring pattern of referee bias.

This significant new research suggests that elements of racism are still embedded in various parts of the American cultural fabric, and underlines how racial inequality can permeate amateur-, as well as professional-level, sport.

Dr. Dix commented: "This research reveals evidence of flawed officiating, and exposes a hidden socio-cultural issue in which female basketball players from historically black colleges and universities are at a competitive disadvantage when they step onto the court.

"It is imperative to provide a voice for the current and former female basketball players from historically black colleges and universities who have been subjected to this form of racial inequality in women's college . Creating awareness and fostering a dialogue on this iteration of referee bias is an important step towards facilitating meaningful change in the officiating of women's ."

Explore further: Historically black schools pay more to issue bonds, researchers find

More information: Andrew Dix, "And 1" More Piece of Evidence of Discrimination Black Basketball Players, Howard Journal of Communications (2018). DOI: 10.1080/10646175.2018.1491434

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3.3 / 5 (4) Aug 24, 2018
Comparatively, referees called significantly fewer personal fouls against female basketball players from PWIs than those from HBCUs, indicating a recurring pattern of referee bias.

How do they know it's "racial bias" and not simply because those teams commit more fouls? Did they analyze video of the games to identify fouls that should have been called on other players? No they didn't. They simply, and stupidly, inferred racial bias from statistical data alone.

If you're going to play the race card with statistics, explain why FBI crime statistics show people of some races commit a disproportionate number of violent crimes (blacks and hispanics are overrepresented). Or why people of certain races are disproportionately represented in the NBA, NFL (about 70% blacks) and MLB (27% Latinos). Or why people of certain races have significantly higher scholastic achievement (Asians blow everyone else away).
2 / 5 (5) Aug 24, 2018
Or explain why whites are behind the greatest mass murders ever like the Holocaust or the invasion of Africa that killed millions, or the invasion of the American continent that killed more millions of American natives, or the nuclear weapons attacks?

why whites are associated with mass murders?

Or why whites have the highest rates of suicide? In the last BBC documentary of suicide that I watched last night, they stated clearly that the main cause of death of whites males younger of 50 years old is suicide.

What is the problem with white males?
1 / 5 (4) Aug 24, 2018
whites go to an area, murder everyone and then they call it ''home'', like America, Africa, and so on.... and they would stop calling ''home'' Germany, Belgium, the UK, etc.

then they victimize themselves and say ''look, the Chinese are building a huge army, the Chinese are a danger''..... the planet knows white males!

(I am not Chinese, by the way)
1 / 5 (4) Aug 24, 2018
The world soccer cup just finished few weeks ago.... Did teams with black players got more problems? no... why? because the soccer cup was not in the USA!!!!! in the USA, the most hateful society on earth, the teams with black players would had suffer a lot, and today the champion would be an all white males team, as they tried to do it anyway. The European teams had many advantages over non white teams in the cup, but the winner team had many non white players.

As many people from many societies that had resisted the hatred, we all know that the planet has a ''white problem''...... not only destroying other humans, and themselves, but now also destroying the whole planet.
5 / 5 (1) Aug 24, 2018
@mqr You obviously don't read much world history
1 / 5 (3) Aug 24, 2018
Yes I do. But not the history that the republican party wrote.... I did not read ''world history'' by Donald Trump, the very stable genius. Or world history by cons of fox news. I had read, for example, the Jacques Pirenne history encyclopedia. And I listen to Noam Chomsky, Chris Hedges, and so on....

But let me guess..... whites are originally from America, or Africa? or are white males victims of the bad Africans or the bad American tribes? that is why whites had gone to those places to murder ? and of course, the bad Jews... that is why they had harrased the Jews forever??? Oh but look at those bad Jews getting weapons..... why the Jews do not trust the good Europeans???? the holocaust did not happened, neither the slavery of blacks, and the other white atrocities....

I do know that the problems with whites start with the fact that they can lie at ease, not problem with lies..... that is why they have the ''leaders'' that they have currently.....
1.3 / 5 (3) Aug 24, 2018
The BBC horizon show is called ''stopping male suicide'' but it should had been called ''stopping white male suicides''....

and yes, the world cup just happened, with very little racism.... because it did not happen in the USA!!!!!!
5 / 5 (4) Aug 24, 2018
I do know that the problems with whites start with the fact that they can lie at ease....-mqr

Hint. Any time you make a statement about an entire race of people, unless it's something trivially true (they all have lungs), you're probably saying something racist.
1 / 5 (1) Aug 24, 2018
yes you are right.... there are many good people with white skin. Indeed, many of the atrocities that had been made by Europeans, I learned them from themselves, that they consider healthy and morally righteous to expose their own history.

Also, there are many white men and women in the USA who are strongly against hatred... they are a minority, but they do exist, and are many.
not rated yet Aug 24, 2018
Say it with me now.... "correlation does not equal causation", someone needs to drill that in these people's heads.
3.7 / 5 (3) Aug 24, 2018
An eminent example of questionable "research".
It appears the "researchers" entered the project with the intent of "proving" to the gullible that "racial bias" exists in referees of women's college basketball.
The "evidence" is that, during a ten season period, referees called a "disproportionate number" of personal fouls against black female basketball players compared to white female basketball players.
An unstated, and absolutely unproved tenet here is that black players are necessarily guilty of exactly the same number of personal fouls as whites. It's not proved true, it's not even mentioned. It is ordered taken without proof as necessarily true.
Note, though, the fact that the "researchers" are not described as actually even looking at films of the games to see if the fouls are legitimate or not! It seems they know what they would find!

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