Bumblebees confused by iridescent colors

May 25, 2018, University of Bristol
Bumblebee landing on an iridescent target. Credit: Karin Kjernsmo

Iridescence is a form of structural colour which uses regular repeating nanostructures to reflect light at slightly different angles, causing a colour-change effect.

It is common in nature, from the dazzling blues of peacock's feathers, to the gem-like appearance of insects.

Although using bright flashy colours as camouflage may seem counterintuitive, researchers at the Bristol Camo Lab found that intense iridescence obstructs the bumblebee's ability to identify shape.The eyes of bumblebees have been extensively studied by scientists and are very similar to those of other insects.

They can be used as a visual model for predatory insects such as wasps and hornets. When presented with different types of artificial flower targets rewarded with sugar water, the bees learned to recognise which shapes contained the sweet reward.

However, they found it much more difficult to discriminate between flower shape when the targets were iridescent.

This current study using bumblebees as a model for (predatory) insect vision and cognition is the first to show that iridescence indeed has the potential to deceive predators and make them overlook the prey, the same way disruptive camouflage would work to break up the otherwise recognisable outline of a prey.

The changing colours make the outline of the prey look completely different to the shape the predators are searching for.

Iridescent rose chafer. Credit: Karin Kjernsmo

The researchers concluded that iridescence produces visual signals which can confuse potential predators, and this may explain its widespread occurrence in nature.

Lead author Dr. Karin Kjernsmo of the University of Bristol's School of Biological Sciences, said: "It's the first solid evidence we have that this type of colouration can be used in this way.

"Thus, if you are a visual searching for the specific shape of a beetle (or other prey animal), iridescence makes it difficult for predators to identify them as something edible. We are currently studying this effect using other visual predators, such as birds as well. This because birds are likely to be the most important predators of iridescent insects."

The first links between iridescence and camouflage were first made over one hundred years ago by an American naturalist named Abbott Thayer, who is often referred to as "the father of camouflage".

He published a famous book on different types of camouflage such as mimicry, shape disruption and dazzle, which is thought to have inspired the "Razzle Dazzle" painting of battleships during the first World War.

However, has been rather overlooked for the past century, as it is often assumed to be purely for attracting mates and displaying to other individuals.

The UK has several species of iridescent beetle, the largest of which being the Rose Chafer, whose superb green and gold colour-changing wing cases can commonly be spotted on flowers in grasslands during the summer.

Dr. Kjernsmo added: "This study has wider implications for how we understand animal vision and —now when we see these shiny beetles we can know that their amazing colours have many more functions than previously thought."

Explore further: Flowers tone down the iridescence of their petals and avoid confusing bees

More information: 'Iridescence impairs object recognition in bumblebees' by K. Kjernsmo, J. Hall, C. Doyle, N. Khuzayim, I. Cuthill, N. Scott-Samuel and H. Whitney in Scientific Reports, 2018.

Related Stories

Bees attracted by floral iridescence

January 9, 2009

(PhysOrg.com) -- Plants and their pollinators are the focus of ground-breaking research by Dr Heather Whitney, recently appointed Lloyds Fellow in the School of Biological Sciences. Her latest work, carried out at the University ...

Recommended for you

After a reset, Сuriosity is operating normally

February 23, 2019

NASA's Curiosity rover is busy making new discoveries on Mars. The rover has been climbing Mount Sharp since 2014 and recently reached a clay region that may offer new clues about the ancient Martian environment's potential ...

Study: With Twitter, race of the messenger matters

February 23, 2019

When NFL player Colin Kaepernick took a knee during the national anthem to protest police brutality and racial injustice, the ensuing debate took traditional and social media by storm. University of Kansas researchers have ...

Solving the jet/cocoon riddle of a gravitational wave event

February 22, 2019

An international research team including astronomers from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has combined radio telescopes from five continents to prove the existence of a narrow stream of material, ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.