Backyard chickens need more regulation

March 2, 2018, UC Davis
Baby Chicks. Credit: UC Davis

Historically, keeping backyard chickens was a response to economic hardship—whether it was in the Depression or during wartime food rationing.

But a growing number of chickens today are roaming or are caged on small family farms and in backyards, as suburban and urban gains more popularity among consumers. Many people prefer to raise their own food because they think it will be safer, fresher and more nutritious than that which was commercially raised. Yet, a new University of California, Davis, study suggests that local ordinances are not adequately addressing human and animal health when it comes to backyard poultry, and laws that do exist do not keep pace with those for commercial growers.

"Ironically, as people seek to take control over the way their food is grown, most ordinances fail to ensure basic health and welfare for birds and humans," said Catherine Brinkley, assistant professor of community and regional development, in the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. She is the primary author of the study.

The paper, "A Method for Guarding Animal Welfare and Public Health: Tracking the Rise of Backyard Poultry Ordinances," was recently published in the Journal of Community Health.

What needs to happen, the author recommends, is that there be more laws that mandate vaccinations, manure management and general animal welfare in urban and suburban settings similar to policies and regulations imposed on commercial chicken ranches.

"Provisions governing animal slaughter and routine veterinary care are rare, presenting a concern for monitoring and intervening in public health crises," the study says. "In addition, shelters anticipate higher poultry intakes, particularly as unwanted birds are turned loose to become strays."

Researchers focused their study on 100 municipalities in Colorado, the only state to compile public data for animal shelter surrenders and other statistics. Compared with three other U.S. cities—Los Angeles, Miami and New York—Denver had the highest percentage of respondents in favor of allowing backyard poultry, 62.5 percent, and the lowest percentage of respondents who believed urban poultry would lead to more human disease, at 7.4 percent. Almost 42,000 households across the four cities were surveyed.

Almost all the laws governing poultry-keeping in Colorado were passed since 2000.

"More poultry ordinances have been passed or modified in Colorado in the last five years than in the previous hundred," Brinkley said.

The most common guidelines for poultry ordinances, the researchers found, pertain to housing design, placement and the sex of birds—some municipalities ban roosters altogether, some do not, and still others permit one rooster per 12 hens, for example. But regulations pertaining to cleanliness, ventilation, and food and water requirements are often lacking. Ordinances governing the slaughter of backyard chickens occur in only half of municipalities in Colorado, and many are vague, researchers found.

Regulations pertaining to the chickens' and welfare were rare in the Colorado study, with only 2 percent of municipalities including poultry under animal cruelty and abuse regulations.

Explore further: Bird flu outbreak at Dutch farm

More information: Catherine Brinkley et al. A Method for Guarding Animal Welfare and Public Health: Tracking the Rise of Backyard Poultry Ordinances, Journal of Community Health (2018). DOI: 10.1007/s10900-017-0462-0

Related Stories

Bird flu outbreak at Dutch farm

February 26, 2018

More than 36,000 animals have been slaughtered after an outbreak of highly contagious bird flu was detected at a Dutch poultry farm, the agriculture ministry said on Monday.

Avian flu found in SE Wash. backyard flock

January 3, 2015

Avian influenza has been found in a backyard poultry flock in southeast Washington after previously showing up in wild birds in the northwest part of the state, but there is no immediate public health concern, state officials ...

Backyard poultry present salmonella risk

June 12, 2017

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention this spring reports that there are eight ongoing outbreaks of salmonella in 47 states linked to backyard poultry in the United States. As of May 13, 71 people had been hospitalized—36 ...

Recommended for you

How female hyaenas came to dominate males

November 19, 2018

In most animal societies, members of one sex dominate those of the other. Is this, as widely believed, an inevitable consequence of a disparity in strength and ferocity between males and females? Not necessarily. A new study ...

Activating a new understanding of gene regulation

November 19, 2018

Regulation of gene expression—turning genes on or off, increasing or decreasing their expression—is critical for defining cell identity during development and coordinating cellular activity throughout the cell's lifetime. ...

5 comments

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

rrwillsj
1 / 5 (1) Mar 03, 2018
Well, among other concerns. Bird Flu anyone? If the Public Health authorities are constrained or outright prohibited from monitoring and regulating backyard chicken coops?

Who are the Public going to bblame as the bodies of their loved ones are summarily disposed of in mass graves?
ab3a
3.7 / 5 (3) Mar 03, 2018
On what basis is more regulation needed? Is there actually a specific problem? Roosters can be noisy and obnoxious, in close quarters; but having a dozen chickens for anyone with more than an acre of land is quite reasonable.

Just keep things reasonably clean, and give them room. It is no worse than having a dog or cat. The added benefit is that the chickens will naturally keep the bug population in check and eat most table scraps. The only thing that makes this bad is ignorance.
rrwillsj
1 / 5 (1) Mar 04, 2018
ab3a, I actually get sentimental when I walk pass my neighbors coops. Hearing the poultry noises brings up a lot of fond memories. I am trying to ignore the less pleasant events.

Tough luck that your comment came out with articles: https://medicalxp...tml#nRlv

and: https://medicalxp...dly.html

ab3a, I am going to belabor my point and personalize it.

How will you react when a deadly mutation of bird flu sweeps through your family?

Because, without a lot of effort by Public Health authorities and responsible poultry farmers? It is not a question of "IF" but "When".
ab3a
1 / 5 (1) Mar 09, 2018
How will you react when a deadly mutation of bird flu sweeps through your family?


Mutated bacteria and viruses are a fact of life. Yes, birds are a source of them. But so are many other environmental sources.

Ultimately, the risks I take are my own, not yours. You probably do many risky things in your life that you're comfortable with, that I would choose to avoid.

How will you react when I tell you that you can't do those activities because I feel that they're dangerous?
TrollBane
not rated yet Mar 09, 2018
"Who are the Public going to blame as the bodies of their loved ones are summarily disposed of in mass graves?"

Historically, Jews. When that gets boring, witches usually suffice.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.