HINODE captures record breaking solar magnetic field

HINODE captures record breaking solar magnetic field
Snapshot of a sunspot observed by the Hinode spacecraft. (top) Visible light continuum image. (bottom) Magnetic field strength map. The color shows the field strength, from weak (cool colors) to strong (warm colors). Red indicates a location with a strength of more than 6,000 gauss (600 mT). Credit: NAOJ/JAXA

Astronomers at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) using the HINODE spacecraft observed the strongest magnetic field ever directly measured on the surface of the Sun. Analyzing data for 5 days around the appearance of this record breaking magnetic field, the astronomers determined that it was generated as a result of gas outflow from one sunspot pushing against another sunspot.

Magnetism plays a critical role in various solar phenomena such as flares, mass ejections, flux ropes, and coronal heating. Sunspots are areas of concentrated magnetic fields. A sunspot usually consists of a circular dark core (the umbra) with a vertical magnetic field and radially-elongated fine threads (the penumbra) with a horizontal field. The penumbra harbors an outward flow of gas along the horizontal threads. The darkness of the umbrae is generally correlated with the magnetic field strength. Hence, the strongest magnetic field in each sunspot is located in the umbra in most cases.

Joten Okamoto (NAOJ Fellow) and Takashi Sakurai (Professor Emeritus of NAOJ) were analyzing data taken by the Solar Optical Telescope onboard HINODE, when they noticed the signature of strongly magnetized iron atoms in a sunspot. Surprisingly the data indicated a of 6,250 gauss. This is more than double the 3,000 gauss field found around most sunspots. Previously, magnetic fields this strong on the Sun had only been inferred indirectly. More surprisingly, the strongest field was not in the dark part of the umbra, as would be expected, but was actually located at a bright region between two umbrae.

HINODE continuously tracked the same with high spatial resolution for several days. This is impossible for ground-based telescopes because the Earth's rotation causes the Sun to set and night to fall on the observatories. These continuous data showed that the strong field was always located at the boundary between the bright region and the umbra, and that the horizontal gas flows along the direction of the magnetic fields over the bright region turned down into the Sun when they reached the strong-field area. This indicates that the bright region with the strong field is a penumbra belonging to the southern umbra (S-pole). The horizontal gas flows from the southern umbra compressed the fields near the other umbra (N-pole) and enhanced the field strength to more than 6,000 gauss.

Okamoto explains, "HINODE's continuous high-resolution data allowed us to analyze the sunspots in detail to investigate the distribution and time evolution of the strong and also the surrounding environment. Finally, the longtime mystery of the formation mechanism of a stronger outside an umbra than in the umbra, has been solved."


Explore further

Image: NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory watches a sunspot

More information: Takenori J. Okamoto et al. Super-strong Magnetic Field in Sunspots, The Astrophysical Journal (2018). DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aaa3d8
Journal information: Astrophysical Journal

Citation: HINODE captures record breaking solar magnetic field (2018, February 6) retrieved 25 April 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-02-hinode-captures-solar-magnetic-field.html
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Feb 06, 2018
From above science news article:
record breaking magnetic field, the astronomers determined that it was generated as a result of gas outflow from one sunspot pushing against another sunspot.
and
an outward flow of gas along
and
horizontal gas flows along the direction of the magnetic fields
and
horizontal gas flows from the southern umbra compressed the fields near the other umbra (N-pole) and enhanced the field strength to more than 6,000 gauss.
They STILL call it 'gas' flows, but it's actually PLASMA flows (FOURTH STATE OF MATTER, ie: 'solid', 'liquid', 'gas', then 'plasma').

ps @cantdrive: The good news is, they're increasingly treating MATTER (plasma) FLOWS; and noting THAT is what causes Mag-fields to 'rearrange'. The bad news is, it's still called 'magnetic reconnection', which distracts from plasma factors/flows and THEIR dynamical causes/reconnections effecting 're-arrangements' in mag-field strength/effects etc. Baby steps, hey? :)

Feb 06, 2018
for everyone except the idiot pseudoscience poster above, here is a preprint on arxiv: https://arxiv.org...12.08700

https://arxiv.org...8700.pdf


Feb 07, 2018
@Stumpy.

My browser treats arxiv site/links as 'safe to open', so I already searched/downloaded that preprint PDF. Thanks anyway. :)

Feb 07, 2018
PS @Stumpy:

Mate, this new year, try to listen/read/understand, instead of ego-tripping and indiscriminately/maliciously insulting posters when they are correct and you entirely incorrect. Try. Thanks.

PPS: Also go and read/understand the article/work at thread: https://phys.org/...nic.html

It also has further info from mainstream article/work that vindicates what certain posters have been pointing out for your gang's benefit while you ridiculed/gang attacked the messengers instead of listening/thinking properly.

PPPS @The gang: it's well passed time all here ceased 'old personal feuds' and started politely/objectively discoursing/thinking. Yes?

Happy New Year. :)

Feb 07, 2018
@idiot delusional D-K afflicted pseudoscience preacher
so I already searched/downloaded that
then you have not read it, especially since you make delusional claims based upon your interpretations of science in your post

until you learn how the scientific method works, you will be nothing more than a two-bit crank posting your delusional religious beliefs which happen to be pseudoscience bullsh*t babble

period
full stop

that is not a personal feud
that is not debatable
that is just how reality is

when you can't substantiate your claims with evidence then your claims are a belief, not science, especially when the overwhelming evidence directly refutes your claims (like about reconnection with more than 100,000 experiments in PPPL.gov alone)

last point- and this is a repeat I've often made to you:
articles *are not* studies or science ...and you have already proven your *interpretation* of articles is seriously delusional

FOAD, you troll
:-)

Feb 07, 2018
@Stumpy.
FOAD
Charming as ever! Also insensible to subtleties which still go over your head with alarming regularity. Eg:
when you can't substantiate your claims with evidence then your claims are a belief, not science, especially when the overwhelming evidence directly refutes your claims (like about reconnection with more than 100,000 experiments in PPPL.gov alone)
But mainstream is NOW providing evidence (as above), and as in other recent work reported on PO. Did you not stop to consider that fact before your "FOAD, troll" foulmouthed spewing, Stumpy? Or doesn't that matter in your Stumpy's "TL;DR and FOAD" 'scientific method', mate? :)
last point- a...: articles *are not* studies or science...
:-)
The point was that Science Journalists perpetuating misleading LABEL which distracts from the actual MATTER (plasma) flows which that Paper NOW ADMITS CAUSE mag-field RE-arrangements (not 'disconnections, reconnections).

Stumpy, check your bile/ego at door. :)

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