Finding liquid water's coldest temperature and its singularity

Credit: George Hodan/public domain

Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have discovered some remarkable features of liquid water—it can be chilled to −42.55°C and it appears to have what is described as a singularity. The first team, made up of members from across Europe, conducted experiments designed to find the lowest temperature at which liquid water can exist. They have published their results in the journal Physical Review Letters. The second team, with members from Sweden, Korea and Japan sought to learn more about the attributes of liquid water when chilled to very low temperatures. They have published their results in the journal Science. Paola Gallo with Università Roma Tre and Eugene Stanley with Boston University offer a Perspective piece on the work done by the two teams in the same Science issue.

While it is true that normally becomes a solid at 0°C, it is also true that under certain circumstances, liquid water can be much colder than that, such as when it is chilled very quickly—a fast measuring system can take the temperature of the water before it has time to form crystals. But just how cold can it get? Prior theory has suggested the limit is likely −40°C. I this new effort, the researchers found it could go slightly colder than that by injecting very tiny droplets into a vacuum chamber. As the droplets moved through the chamber, some of the water evaporated, causing the temperature of the drop to fall. The team used lasers to measure the change in diameter of the drops to calculate their temperature, and found the new low record of −42.55°C.

Liquid water also has another strange property, according to the researchers with the second effort—the ability to exist in two different liquid states when chilled and to jump between them at a given point, which the team called its singularity. They used a similar setup to the first group, injecting into a and shooting them with a laser to measure their temperature, but they found something new. Different parts of the droplets had different densities and sometimes the molecules in the drops seemed to have difficulty deciding which state to occupy, and so moved back and forth, suggesting a singularity state.

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More information: 1. Claudia Goy et al. Shrinking of Rapidly Evaporating Water Microdroplets Reveals their Extreme Supercooling, Physical Review Letters (2018). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.015501 , On Arxiv:

The fast evaporative cooling of micrometer-sized water droplets in vacuum offers the appealing possibility to investigate supercooled water - below the melting point but still a liquid - at temperatures far beyond the state-of-the-art. However, it is challenging to obtain a reliable value of the droplet temperature under such extreme experimental conditions. Here, the observation of morphology-dependent resonances in the Raman scattering from a stream of perfectly uniform water droplets has allowed us to measure with an absolute precision of better than 0.2% the variation in droplet size resulting from evaporative mass losses. This finding proved crucial to an unambiguous determination of the droplet temperature. In particular, a fraction of water droplets with initial diameter of 6379±12 nm were found to remain liquid down to 230.6±0.6 K. Our results question temperature estimates reported recently for larger supercooled water droplets, and provide valuable information on the hydrogen-bond network in liquid water in the hard-to-access deeply supercooled regime.

2. Kyung Hwan Kim et al. Maxima in the thermodynamic response and correlation functions of deeply supercooled water, Science (2017). DOI: 10.1126/science.aap8269

Femtosecond x-ray laser pulses were used to probe micrometer-sized water droplets that were cooled down to 227 kelvin in vacuum. Isothermal compressibility and correlation length were extracted from x-ray scattering at the low–momentum transfer region. The temperature dependence of these thermodynamic response and correlation functions shows maxima at 229 kelvin for water and 233 kelvin for heavy water. In addition, we observed that the liquids undergo the fastest growth of tetrahedral structures at similar temperatures. These observations point to the existence of a Widom line, defined as the locus of maximum correlation length emanating from a critical point at positive pressures in the deeply supercooled regime. The difference in the maximum value of the isothermal compressibility between the two isotopes shows the importance of nuclear quantum effects.

Journal information: Physical Review Letters , Science , arXiv

© 2018

Citation: Finding liquid water's coldest temperature and its singularity (2018, January 10) retrieved 22 October 2019 from
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Jan 10, 2018
In many ways, this begins to indicate that some unusual form of water is what chemtrails are made of. It could always be asked, if a jet is shooting out a chemical, how it can fall to earth and not be detected. It seems likely it is a generally unseen form of water.
Among other things, note the reference to a vapor of this chilled form of water being fired into a vacuum. That is very close to conditions at the altitude where chemtrails are formed. The fact that it doesn't disappear completely from evaporation or sublimation is consistent with chemtrails being non dissipating. Since the weather modifying chemical spread by chemtrails is supposed to take the place of normal water in weather causation, this could fill the bill.
It should be mentioned, it was always said to be a problem in cryogenics that freezing water causes ice crystals that destroy cell tissue. It seems that the form of water that can supercool without forming ice can be used in cryogenics.

Jan 10, 2018
Among other things, tallenglish engages in a common tactic of promoters of the lie, proclaiming one statement and pretending it disputes another statement.
Contrails are trails of vapor that dissipate. Chemtrails do not dissipate. They stretch from horizon to horizon and last for an hour or more. If chemtrail activity was that of contrails, there would be the enormous plethora of photos of such unchanging lines in the sky that came after 1997 when chemtrails were first reported bing seen. Even in 1996, 1995, 1990, when air traffic was the same size as in 1997, there were no photos similar to chemtrail photos taken. Hundreds of photos a day came after 1997, but those who wish to try to insist that there were chemtrail photos before then have to go all the way back to the 1940's to find anything even similar, and the photos they provide range from skywriting, to curved paths at air shows to short traces of condensation at the tips of bomber wings during World War II.

Jan 11, 2018
I grew up on the high plains of western Kansas at 3000 feet above sea level in the 1960s. Often I used to lie on my back for hours on end during the lazy days of summer (when dad didn't have any work for me to do) and watch the white trails coming from planes criss-crossing the sky above me as they spread out across the crystal blue dome overhead.
The state song of Kansas is called 'Home on the Range' and it goes "home, home on the range, where the deer and the antelope play, where seldom is heard a discouraging word, and the skies are not cloudy all day".
Well, I knew there were clouds all day some days-- overcast days throughout the year, violent supercell thunderstorms from spring to autumn. But those days when there wasn't a cloud in the sky except for those jet contrails-- those prove you a liar. I would watch those things spread out, and out, and out, and out, until sometimes they filled the whole sky and created magnificent sunsets late in the day.
In the 1960s. Got it?

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