New antenna in Alaska expands spacecraft communications capabilities

October 4, 2017 by Ashley Hume And Katherine Schauer, NASA
The new AS-2 antenna stands atop the Elvey building at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. In the foreground rests the old AS-2 antenna it replaced. Credit: Jeff Beiderbeck/PWP Photography

NASA's newest communications antenna became operational today following a ribbon-cutting ceremony at the Alaska Satellite Facility in Fairbanks. The antenna will increase the agency's communications support to Earth-observing missions.

NASA spacecraft collect massive amounts of scientific data every day, but there are no fiber cables or internet hookups in space. How do they transmit that data to the ground or receive commands from operators? That's where the agency's three communications networks come in: the Deep Space Network, the Space Network and the Near Earth Network (NEN).

The new is part of the NEN, which provides communications support to spacecraft up to 1.2 million miles from Earth. The NEN is a direct-to-ground communications network, meaning that it doesn't use any space-based assets, like Tracking and Data Relay Satellites, to relay communications. Instead, NASA missions communicate directly with the network's ground-based antennas when they are within line of sight. In addition to their data transfer services, NEN antennas provide constant telemetry, tracking and command for the spacecraft. This helps track the spacecraft's location in space and take care of "housekeeping" items, such as adjusting the satellite's orbit or re-aligning the solar panels.

AS-2, as the antenna is called, replaces an outdated antenna at the Alaska Satellite Facility. It greatly expands on the services the previous antenna was able to provide. AS-2's location in Alaska is ideal for communicating with polar-orbiting missions, most of which are Earth science missions. High-latitude locations like Fairbanks can communicate numerous times per day with polar-orbiting satellites. The antenna will support several current and future Earth-observing missions that use the Alaska Satellite Facility, including Aqua, Aura and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP). These missions provide critical data about Earth, such as information on the water cycle, air quality and other aspects of the environment.

NASA’s Near Earth Network is one of the agency’s three space communications networks, which transmit spacecraft data to Earth. The Near Earth Network has both agency-owned and commercial ground stations around the world to provide communications services to more than 40 NASA missions. Credit: NASA Goddard/producers: Chip Rittenhouse, Danny Baird; music: Joe Hartnett; narration: Todd Googins

AS-2 is equipped with both S-band and X-band communications capabilities. These bands are radio frequency ranges that many spacecraft use to communicate. X-band has greater available bandwidth than than S-band.

Like its sister antennas, AS-1 and AS-3, the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) will operate AS-2. The antennas have become well-known among students and alumni at the university, and many alumni spoke with NASA team members about how the data for their doctorate degrees was made possible through the NEN antenna.

"When we installed the new antenna, people stopped by and told us their stories about it," said Joe O'Brien, the AS-2 project manager at University of Alaska Fairbanks. "It was kind of neat to hear people's connection to the antenna, to know they care about it."

The NEN is located throughout the world. Network assets owned by NASA are located at Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia; McMurdo Ground Station in Antarctica; White Sands Complex in New Mexico; and owned by NASA, but operated by UAF, is the Fairbanks facility. The NEN also contains commercially owned stations from Kongsberg Satellite Services, South African National Space Agency, Swedish Space Corporation and the U.S. Navy.

Explore further: NASA's newest Near Earth Network Antenna is operational

Related Stories

NASA's newest Near Earth Network Antenna is operational

July 11, 2014

A ribbon-cutting ceremony near the base of the new NASA antenna within the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) marked the official beginning for the Near Earth Network (NEN) asset. Operated by the University of Alaska, Fairbanks ...

TDRS: An era of continuous space communications

August 17, 2017

More than 50 years ago, at the dawn of human spaceflight, the first brave astronauts were only able to communicate with mission control operators on Earth for about 15 percent of each orbit. If this were true today, the International ...

Recommended for you

Two sub-Jovian exoplanets orbiting bright stars discovered

March 19, 2018

Using NASA's prolonged Kepler mission, known as K2, astronomers have identified two new gas giant exoplanets. The newly found alien worlds, designated HD 89345 b and HD 286123 b, are warm, low-density sub-Jovian planets circling ...

Measuring white dwarf masses with gravitational lensing

March 19, 2018

Measuring the mass of a celestial body is one of the most challenging tasks in observational astronomy. The most successful method uses binary systems because the orbital parameters of the system depend on the two masses. ...

NASA powers on new instrument staring at the Sun

March 16, 2018

NASA has powered on its latest space payload to continue long-term measurements of the Sun's incoming energy. Total and Spectral solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS-1), installed on the International Space Station, became fully ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.